Abstract Purpose Composite flaps used in reconstructive surgery may intra- and postoperatively suffer from hypoperfusion and/or ischemia-reperfusion influencing wound healing. We aimed to follow-up the effect of ischemia on adipocutaneous flaps’ wound healing and microcirculation. Methods In anesthetized rats groin flaps were formed bilaterally. In Control group the flaps were repositioned and sutured back. In Ischemia-Reperfusion (I/R) group before repositioning and suturing the flap pedicles were clamped for 60 minutes. Laser Doppler (LD) fluxmetry and temperature probes were applied on the cranial, central and caudal flap regions before/after preparation and ischemia, re-suturing, and on the 1st-3rd-5th-7th-14th postoperative days, before the final examinations and biopsies for histology. Results Flaps’ skin temperature quickly recovered after repositioning. LD values were lower in the I/R group, reaching a significant level by the 3rd postoperative day, and remained lowered till the 14th day. The magnitude of alterations differed in the flap regions. Histologically normal wound healing process was seen, except for some I/R flaps, where hypertrophized mammary glands were found. Conclusions Short-term ischemia could influence flap microcirculation and wound healing, and may result in hypertrophized mammary glands. Laser Doppler could be used to evaluate intra- and postoperative microcirculatory changes and may have significance in predicting complications.