ABSTRACT Acute liver failure is a rare syndrome with high mortality and is often diagnosed late. Intensivist physicians play fundamental roles in the diagnostic suspicion and the management of the multiple-organic dysfunctions characteristic of this entity. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is an entity that is characterized by the paradoxical worsening of the patient's previous condition, after the initiation of antiretrovirals, triggered against either pathogens present in the host or autoantigens. Autoimmune hepatitis has recently been described as one of these autoimmune manifestations. The authors report the first case with evolution to acute liver failure and death within a few days after the development of encephalopathy, review the cases of autoimmune hepatitis described and comment on the therapeutic possibilities in this context.
RESUMO A insuficiência hepática aguda é uma síndrome rara com elevada mortalidade e frequentemente reconhecida de forma tardia. Os médicos intensivistas desempenham um papel fundamental na suspeição diagnóstica e no manejo das disfunções múltiplo-orgânicas características desta entidade. A síndrome inflamatória de reconstituição imune é uma entidade que se caracteriza pela piora paradoxal do quadro prévio do paciente, após o início de antirretrovirais, desencadeada contra patógenos presentes no hospedeiro ou autoantígenos. A hepatite autoimune tem sido recentemente descrita como uma destas manifestações autoimunes. Os autores relatam o primeiro caso com evolução à insuficiência hepática aguda e óbito em poucos dias após o desenvolvimento de encefalopatia, revisam os casos de hepatite autoimune descritos e tecem comentários sobre as possibilidades terapêuticas neste contexto.
OBJECTIVES: This study compared the accuracy of the Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3 with that of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II at predicting hospital mortality in patients from a transplant intensive care unit. METHOD: A total of 501 patients were enrolled in the study (152 liver transplants, 271 kidney transplants, 54 lung transplants, 24 kidney-pancreas transplants) between May 2006 and January 2007. The Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3 was calculated using the global equation (customized for South America) and the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score; the scores were calculated within 24 hours of admission. A receiver-operating characteristic curve was generated, and the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was calculated to identify the patients at the greatest risk of death according to Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3 and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores. The Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test was used for statistically significant results and indicated a difference in performance over deciles. The standardized mortality ratio was used to estimate the overall model performance. RESULTS: The ability of both scores to predict hospital mortality was poor in the liver and renal transplant groups and average in the lung transplant group (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve = 0.696 for Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3 and 0.670 for Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II). The calibration of both scores was poor, even after customizing the Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3 score for South America. CONCLUSIONS: The low predictive accuracy of the Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3 and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores does not warrant the use of these scores in critically ill transplant patients.