<p>Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) is a gold standard drug in dentistry and is widely used as a reference in both <italic>in vitro</italic> and <italic>in vivo</italic>experiments. Due to ease of access, mouth washes containing CHX 0.12% are used as a substitute for aqueous CHX 0.12% solution in laboratory experiments. Additionally, it is well known that for product flavor purposes, volatile compounds are added to mouth washes formulations. Volatiles added to CHX 0.12% may improve wash's antibacterial ability. Volatiles add potency to the mouth wash formulation. Compared with an aqueous CHX 0.12% solution, it is proposed that CHX solutions and Periogard<sup>®</sup> would have antimicrobial activity. Antimicrobial activity was assessed in the present study via disk diffusion assays against <italic>Streptococcus mutans</italic>, <italic>Streptococcus sanguinis</italic>and <italic>Escherichia coli</italic>. Periogard<sup>®</sup> showed a significantly higher antibacterial activity in relation to CHX 0.12% (p<0.05) and a similar activity in relation to CHX 1% (p>0.05). Periogard<sup>(r)</sup> volatiles were analyzed by gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry (GCMS) and the presence of antibacterial menthol, menthone, isomenthol, menthyl acetate, trans-anethol and eugenol was verified. Finally, the use of Periogard<sup>®</sup> as a synonym of CHX 0.12% must be avoided, because its antibacterial activity is closely related to CHX 1%.</p>
<p>Gluconato de clorexidina (CHX) é um fármaco considerado padrão ouro, em Odontologia, amplamente usado como referência em estudos <italic>in vitro</italic> e <italic>in vivo</italic>. Em razão da facilidade de acesso, enxaguatórios bucais que contêm CHX 0,12% são usados em substituição à solução aquosa de clorexidina (CHX 0,12%), em experimentos laboratoriais. É sabido que devido à palatabilidade do produto, os mesmos enxaguatórios bucais contêm compostos voláteis em sua formulação, além da CHX 0.12%. Visto que voláteis adicionados podem acrescentar poder antibacteriano à formulação, a comparação da resposta antibacteriana da solução aquosa de CHX em diferentes concentrações e de Periogard<sup>®</sup> é proposta no presente artigo. Para tanto, utilizou-se o ensaio do disco de difusão em ágar com inóculos de <italic>Streptococcus mutans</italic>, <italic>Streptococcus sanguinis</italic> e <italic>Escherichia coli</italic>. Periogard<sup>®</sup> mostrou atividade antibacteriana significativa contra as três cepas analisadas, quando comparada à atividade de CHX 0.12% (p<0,05) e atividade similar à CHX diluída a 1% (p>0,05). A presença de compostos voláteis no Periogard<sup>®</sup> foi analisada por GC-MS e observou-se que mentol, mentona, isomentol, acetato de mentila, trans-anetol e eugenol estão presentes na formulação. Deste modo, o uso de Periogard<sup>(r)</sup> como sinônimo de CHX 0,12% deve ser evitado, uma vez que sua atividade se assemelha àquela da CHX diluída a 1%.</p>
Nineteen plant extracts obtained from plants from the Brazilian Amazon showed activity against planktonic Streptococcus mutans, an important bacterium involved in the first steps of biofilm formation and the subsequent initiation of several oral diseases. Objective: Our goal was to verify whether plant extracts that showed activity against planktonic S. mutans could prevent the organization of or even disrupt a single-species biofilm made by the same bacteria. Material and Methods: Plant extracts were tested on a single-bacteria biofilm prepared using the Zürich method. Each plant extract was tested at a concentration 5 times higher than its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Discs of hydroxyapatite were submersed overnight in brain-heart infusion broth enriched with saccharose 5%, which provided sufficient time for biofilm formation. The discs were then submersed in extract solutions for one minute, three times per day, for two subsequent days. The discs were then washed with saline three times, at ten seconds each, after each treatment. Supports were allowed to remain in the enriched medium for one additional night. At the end of the process, the bacteria were removed from the discs by vortexing and were counted. Results: Only two of 19 plant extracts showed activity in the present assay: EB1779, obtained from Dioscorea altissima, and EB1673, obtained from Annona hypoglauca. Although the antibacterial activity of the plant extracts was first observed against planktonic S. mutans, influence over biofilm formation was not necessarily observed in the biofilm model. The present results motivate us to find new natural products to be used in dentistry.
Previous studies analyzing 2,200 plant extracts indicated anti-enterococcal activity in 25 extracts obtained from Brazilian forests' plants. In the present study, these extracts were subjected to microdilution broth assay (MDBA) and disk diffusion assay (DDA) using planktonic Enterococcus faecalis ATCC® 29212TM and were submitted to phytochemical analysis in TLC and HPLC. Three extracts obtained from Ipomoea alba (MIC < 40 µg/mL), Diclinanona calycina (MIC < 40 µg/mL) and Moronobea coccinea (40 < MIC < 80 µg/mL; MBC = 80 µg/mL) showed significant bactericidal activity in the MDBA and four extracts obtained from I. alba (14.04 ± 0.55 mm diameter) S. globulifera (14.43 ± 0.33 mm and 12.18 ± 0.28 mm diameter) and Connarus ruber var. ruber (13.13 ± 0.18 mm diameter) were active in DDA. Residues H2O obtained from Psidium densicomum (mean of 16.78 mm diameter) and from Stryphnodendron pulcherrimum (mean of 15.97 mm diameter) have shown an improved antibacterial activity after fractionation if compared to that obtained from the respective crude extracts. Antioxidant activity was observed in some residues of the active extracts. TLC analysis showed that phenolic compounds are likely to be found in active extracts. Three molecules were isolated from S. globulifera and were identified by 13C NMR lupeol, α-amyrin and 3β-hydroxyglutin-5-ene. The present chemical and biological findings suggest that these extracts are a potential source of new anti-Enterococcus compounds to be introduced in endodontic therapy.
Caries is a global public health problem, whose control requires the introduction of low-cost treatments, such as strong prevention strategies, minimally invasive techniques and chemical prevention agents. Nature plays an important role as a source of new antibacterial substances that can be used in the prevention of caries, and Brazil is the richest country in terms of biodiversity. Objective: In this study, the disk diffusion method (DDM) was used to screen over 2,000 Brazilian Amazon plant extracts against Streptococcus mutans. Material and Methods: Seventeen active plant extracts were identified and fractionated. Extracts and their fractions, obtained by liquid-liquid partition, were tested in the DDM assay and in the microdilution broth assay (MBA) to determine their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs). The extracts were also subjected to antioxidant analysis by thin layer chromatography. Results: EB271, obtained from Casearia spruceana, showed significant activity against the bacterium in the DDM assay (20.67±0.52 mm), as did EB1129, obtained from Psychotria sp. (Rubiaceae) (15.04±2.29 mm). EB1493, obtained from Ipomoea alba, was the only extract to show strong activity against Streptococcus mutans (0.08 mg/mL<MIC<0.16 mg/mL; MBC=0.16 mg/mL) in the MBA. Conclusions: The active extracts, discovered in the Amazon rain forest, show potential as sources of new antibacterial agents for use as chemical coadjuvants in prevention strategies to treat caries.
Enterococcus faecalis is an important pathogen associated with endodontic diseases, and its elimination and control are of paramount importance, as it represents one of the major causes of failure in the treatment of endodontic disease. Twenty-five plant extracts obtained from Brazilian forests were found to be effective against planktonic E. faecalis and were subjected to two traditional antibacterial assays, the microdilution broth assay (MDBA) and the disk diffusion assay (DDA), using chlorhexidine (CHX) as a control. Seven out of 25 extracts showed significant antibacterial activity and were tested in a biofilm assay, and three of these extracts were subjected to chemical fractionation. Residues were tested for their antibacterial activity, and the first chemical findings were described based on thin layer chromatography (TLC). Extracts obtained from Ipomoea alba, Symphonia globulifera and Moronobea coccinea showed significant bactericidal activity in the MDBA. The same I. alba and S. globulifera extracts, as well as the extract obtained from Connarus ruber var. ruber, showed significant activity in the DDA. RH2O obtained from Psidium densicomum and Stryphnodendron pulcherrimum showed better antibacterial activity compared to the respective crude extracts and CHX. TLC analysis showed that phenolic compounds and triterpenes represent the first findings of chemical groups that may occur in all species. The results of the present study include the discovery of six active extracts against planktonic E. faecalis and support further testing via assays involving biofilm formation, as well as the determination of the compounds' chemical profiles, as their activity was significantly better than that observed for CHX.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an organic extract obtained from Ipomoea alba L. (Convolvulaceae or OE 1493), on experimental periodontal disease in rats. Periodontitis was induced in thirty six Wistar rats: a first mandibular molar was randomly assigned to receive a ligature, whereas the contralateral molar was left unligated. Animals were randomly assigned to two groups and treated topically, three times a day, for 11 days, as follows: Control Group - vehicle-treated (n = 18), and Test Group - OE 1493-treated (n = 18). The rats were sacrificed on the 12th day. Morphometrical measurements from the cementoenamel junction to the bone crest were performed to determine alveolar bone loss, using standardized photographs. Single- and multi-dose acute toxicity assays were carried out after OE 1493 treatment. Morphometrical analysis demonstrated that topically-administered OE 1493 showed no effect on reducing bone loss when compared with the control group (p > 0.05). In addition, OE 1493 did not present toxicity. Within the limits of this investigation, it may be concluded that OE 1493 did not show any positive influence on the progression of ligature-induced periodontitis in rats, when administered according to the regimen used in the present study.
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most prevalent cancer of the oral cavity and the fifth most prevalent of all malignancies in males. Many researchers have attempted to develop new treatments that will improve the prognosis of SCC patients. Over 20% of the world's biodiversity is located within the Brazilian forests, but little is known about the chemical and/or pharmacological potential of these plants. Certain extracts obtained from Amazon and Atlantic Forest plants have previously been shown to have cytotoxic activity against various cancers. The aim of this study was to screen these extracts for cytotoxic activity against oral SCC cells. The extracts were analyzed for activity against the KB-ADL#12 cell line at various concentrations up to a maximum dose of 100 µg/mL. Comparisons with a control group were performed using one-way ANOVA. Significant cytotoxicity was induced by the extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Picrolemma sprucei (Simaroubaceae), from the leaves and stems of Laetia suaveolens (Salicaceae), from the aerial parts of Abarema auriculata (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae) and from the stem of A. auriculata.
Dermatological disorders related to pigmentation result in tenuous hyper or hypopigmentation Cosmetic and pharmaceutical products containing depigmenting substances are used in the treatment of patients who have high pigmentation disorders, such as melasma or chloasma, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, senile lentigo and ephelides. Skin lightening agents are not yet totally effective or safe and therefore intensive research for the discovery of new agents is continuous. Enzyme inhibitors involved in melanogenesis, such as tyrosinase, have been discovered in Asian countries, including those isolated from plant extracts. The Brazilian flora has the highest species diversity in the world, and the chemical, pharmacological and cosmetic potential for the discovery of new skin whitening agents is in proportion with this biodiversity. For these reasons, 25 aqueous and 24 organic extracts obtained from 19 plants native to the Amazon rain forest and to the Atlantic forest, belonging to 11 different families, were evaluated as tyrosinase inhibitors. Nine out of 49 extracts showed inhibitory activity in the screening process. The 50% inhibitory activity (IA50) was calculated, revealing that the most active extracts were the organic extracts from the leaves and stem of Ruprechtia sp. (IA50 33.76 mg.mL-1) and the organic extract from the aerial organs of Rapanea parviflora (IA50 64.19 mg.mL-1).
Problemas dermatológicos relacionados com a pigmentação resultam em hiperpigmentações ou hipopigmentação cutâneas. Produtos cosméticos e farmacêuticos com atividade despigmentante são utilizados para o tratamento de pacientes que apresentam distúrbios de hiperpigmentação, tais como melasma ou cloasma, hiperpigmentação pós-inflamatória, lentigem senil e efélides. Os despigmentantes atualmente utilizados não são totalmente eficazes ou seguros, razão pela qual há intensa pesquisa, principalmente em países asiáticos, com a finalidade de se obter novos agentes com esta ação, em especial inibidores de enzimas envolvidas na melanogênese, como a tirosinase. Considerando-se que algumas substâncias obtidas de plantas apresentam essa atividade, a flora brasileira constitui-se uma fonte potencial de obtenção de novos despigmentantes. Por essa razão, 25 extratos aquosos e 24 orgânicos obtidos de 19 plantas da Floresta Amazônica e Mata Atlântica, provenientes de 11 diferentes famílias, foram avaliados quanto à atividade de inibição da tirosinase. Do total de 49 extratos testados, 9 mostraram atividade. Os valores de concentração da atividade inibitória 50% (AI 50%), foram calculados e o mais ativo foi o extrato orgânico das folhas e caule de Ruprechtia sp. (AI50 33,76 mg.mL-1) seguido do extrato orgânico dos órgãos aéreos de Rapanea parviflora (AI50 64,19 mg.mL-1).
Plants have played a significant role in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases for the last four decades. The discovery and introduction to market of paclitaxel, the vinca alkaloids, etoposide, and many antibacterial drugs support drug discovery programs based on natural products. Natural products have been rediscovered as important tools for drug development despite advances in combinatorial chemistry, due to the complex molecular structures able to interact with mammalian cell targets. The Brazilian flora, the most diverse in the world, has become an interesting spot to prospect for new chemical leads or hits due to its species diversity and associated chemical richness. Screening programs have been established in Brazil as a strategy to identify potentially active substances. High throughput screening techniques allow for the analysis of large numbers of extracts in a relatively short period of time, and can be considered one of the most efficient ways of finding new leads from natural products. An updated review of the current status of the biological screening program is presented and recent results from new antitumoral and antibacterial chemical leads are discussed.
Plantas são uma importante fonte de novos protótipos há pelo menos quatro décadas. A descoberta e introdução no mercado de paclitaxel, dos alcalóides da vinca, etoposídeo e muitos agentes antibacterianos têm servido de apoio ao desenvolvimento de programas de descobrimento de novos fármacos baseados em produtos naturais. Produtos naturais foram recentemente redescobertos como importante ferramenta na descoberta de novos fármacos devido às estruturas moleculares complexas capazes de interagir com alvos em células de mamíferos. A flora brasileira, a mais rica do mundo, tornou-se um importante sítio para prospecção de novos protótipos em decorrência da riqueza de espécies vegetais relacionada a uma possível diversidade química. Programas de triagem têm sido introduzidos no Brasil contrapondo a devastação de florestas relacionadas a atividades rurais, extrativismo madeireiro e mineral. Ensaios em larga escala permitem a análise de um grande número de amostras em um tempo relativamente pequeno, e pode ser considerado como o método mais eficaz para a descoberta de novos fármacos a partir de plantas. Dados atualizados relativos a programas de triagem que objetivam a identificação de novos protótipos antitumorais e antibacterianos são comentados.
Infections caused by multiresistant bacteria are a widespread problem, especially in intensive care units. New antibiotics are necessary, and we need to search for alternatives, including natural products. Brazil is one of the hottest spots in the world in terms of biodiversity, but little is known about the chemical and pharmacological properties of most of the plants found in the Amazon rain forest and the Atlantic Forest. We screened 1,220 organic and aqueous extracts, obtained from Amazon and Atlantic rain forest plants, against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli. Seventeen organic and aqueous extracts obtained from 16 plants showed activity against both Gram-positive bacteria. None of the extracts showed relevant activity against the Gram-negative E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Thirty-eight aqueous and organic extracts obtained from 11 Amazonian Apocynaceae species were submitted to an antimicrobial dilution in broth media screening for Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans, performed on microtiter plates. The organic extract obtained from the stem of Tabernaemontana angulata presented activity against Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus. The minimal inhibitory concentration of the organic crude extract was 2.50-1.25 mg/mL. Cloramphenicol was used as standard. Alkaloids and triterpenes were found in the active organic extract.
Trinta e oito extratos orgânicos e aquosos obtidos de 11 espécies de Apocynaceae foram submetidos a triagem utilizando o método da microdiluição em caldo contra Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Candida albicans. O extrato orgânico obtido do caule de Tabernaemontana angulata apresentou atividade contra a bactéria Gram positiva S. aureus. A concentração inibitória mínima verificada para esse extrato variou de 2,50 a 1,25 mg/mL. Cloranfenicol foi utilizado como antimicrobiano padrão. A análise fitoquímica indicou a presença de triterpenos e alcalóides no extrato ativo.
A família das Annonaceae pertence à classe Magnoliopsida, subclasse Magnoliidae e ordem Magnoliales. Estima-se que existam entre 2.000 e 2.300 espécies1,2, sendo a maior de sua Ordem1. As espécies de Annonaceae são encontradas nos trópicos e são especialmente características de florestas sempre verdes de planícies em grande parte dos trópicos do velho mundo2. No Brasil, encontram-se amplamente distribuídas.