Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar o estresse e a resistência ao deslocamento, pela análise de elementos finitos, de diferentes tipos de fixação em cirurgia ortognática mandibular. Um modelo 3D de elementos finitos sólidos de uma hemi-mandíbula foi obtido. Uma osteotomia sagital bilateral foi simulada e o segmento distal foi avançado 5 mm. Após o ajuste e sobreposição dos segmentos, foram simulados 9 diferentes tipos de osteossíntese com miniplacas e parafusos 2.0: A, uma miniplaca reta convencional de 4 furos; B, uma miniplaca reta lock de 4 furos; C, uma miniplaca convencional de 4 furos e um parafuso bicortical; D, uma placa lock de 4 furos e 1 parafuso bicortical; E, uma miniplaca reta convencional de 6 furos; F, uma miniplaca lock de 6 furos; G, duas miniplacas retas convencionais de 4 furos; H, duas miniplacas lock de 4 furos; e I, três parafusos bicorticais em um padrão L invertido. Em cada modelo foram aplicadas forças simulando os músculos mastigatórios. Foram verificados os valores da tensão nas placas e parafusos. A resistência ao deslocamento foi verificada no segmento proximal, uma vez que o segmento distal era estável. Foi medida a região com o maior deslocamento inferior e superior. O deslocamento entre os segmentos osteotomizados foi verificado por intervalos milimétricos. Parafusos bicorticais em L invertido foram o modelo que teve o menor descolamento inferior, e o modelo com a tensão mais baixa foi o de duas placas convencionais. Os resultados sugerem que a tensão foi melhor distribuída nas miniplacas do tipo lock, mas os parafusos de fixação apresentaram maior concentração de tensão.
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the stress and dislodgement resistance by finite element analysis of different types of fixation in mandibular orthognathic surgery. A 3D solid finite element model of a hemi-mandible was obtained. A bilateral sagittal split osteotomy was simulated and the distal segment was advanced 5 mm forward. After the adjustment and superimposing of segments, 9 different types of osteosynthesis with 2.0 miniplates and screws were simulated: A, one 4-hole conventional straight miniplate; B, one 4-hole locking straight miniplate; C, one 4-hole conventional miniplate and one bicortical screw; D, one 4-hole locking miniplate and 1 bicortical screws; E, one 6-hole conventional straight miniplate; F, one 6-hole locking miniplate; G, two 4-hole conventional straight miniplates; H, two 4-hole locking straight miniplates; and I, 3 bicortical screws in an inverted-L pattern. In each model, forces simulating the masticatory muscles were applied. The values of stress in the plates and screws were checked. The dislodgement resistance was checked at the proximal segment since the distal segment was stable because of the screen at the occlusal tooth. The regions with the lowest and highest displacement were measured. The offset between the osteotomized segments was verified by millimeter intervals. Inverted-L with bicortical screws was the model that had the lowest dislodgment and the model with the lowest tension was the one with two conventional plates. The results suggest that the tension was better distributed in the locking miniplates, but the locking screws presented higher concentration of tension.
A dose of 0.3 mL of water solution containing 0.00 (control), 0.625, 1.250 or 1.875 µg of 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol (25(OH)D3) was administered to 312 fertile eggs derived from 49-w-old Cobb 500 broiler breeders on the 17th day of incubation (DE17) via allantoic cavity. After treatment, eggs were distributed and maintained until hatching in four incubators set at 37.8 ºC and 55% RH. Each incubator received eggs from all treatments, according to a block design with four treatments of 77-79 replicates each. Hatching was checked every two hours from 484h to 512h of incubation to evaluate productivity and chick qualities. Chicks were housed until 10 days of age in heated battery cages according to a block design with four treatments of 10 replicates of six chicks each for performance and mortality evaluation. Mean hatching time of the chicks treated with 25(OH)D3 during the embryonic phase occurred 4 to 5 h earlier than control group (502:31h), with no effects on hatching or neonate qualities. An inverse linear effect of 25(OH)D3 dose on chick body weight at hatching was observed, but 10-d-old broiler performance and mortality were not affected. The fast body weight recovery of the broilers obtained from the embryos supplemented with the highest 25(OH)D3 level was recorded until 10 days of rearing, equaling final mean body weights (p>0.05) among experimental groups. The results of this study indicate the potential use of 25(OH)D3 as exogenous vitamin supplementation to embryos a few days before hatching without affecting neonate qualities and 10-d-old broiler chicken performance.
Foram utilizados 288 pintos de corte Cobb, distribuídos em delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas no tempo, sendo as três temperaturas de criação - fria, termoneutra e quente - as parcelas, e as três fases de avaliação - inicial, crescimento e final - as subparcelas, com seis repetições de seis aves cada. A dieta-teste foi obtida pela substituição de parte da ração basal pelo alimento-teste: 40% do farelo de soja + 60% da ração basal. Foram calculados os coeficientes de metabolizabilidade aparente e verdadeiro da matéria seca, do nitrogênio, do extrato etéreo da dieta-teste e os valores de energia metabolizável aparente e verdadeira (EMA e EMV), e corrigidas pelo balanço de nitrogênio do farelo de soja (EMAn e EMVn). Foram encontrados valores médios de EMAn do farelo de soja para aves criadas em temperatura fria, termoneutra e quente de 2110, 2016 e 2022kcal/kg, respectivamente, e para as fases de criação inicial, crescimento e final de 1840, 2052 e 2256kcal/kg, respectivamente. O valor de energia metabolizável do farelo de soja, os balanços e os coeficientes de metabolizabilidade dos nutrientes da dieta-teste aumentaram com a idade do frango de corte, porém não são afetados pela temperatura ambiente.
Two hundred and eighty-eight Cobb chicks were distributed in a completely randomized design with a split-plot arrangement with six replication of six chicks each, the main plots were in three temperatures (cold, thermo neutral and hot) and the secondary plot were by phase (initial, growing and final). The test diet was produced by replacing the basal diet with test food: 40% soybean meal+60% basal diet. The coefficient of apparent and true metabolizability of dry matter, nitrogen, ether extract of the test diet and apparent and true metabolizable energies (AME and TME) of soybean meal were calculated and energy values were corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn and TMEn) of soybean meal, in kcal/kg, as fed basis. The mean values of AMEn observed for broiler chicks in cold, thermo neutral and hot temperature were 2110, 2016 and 2022kcal/kg, respectively, and the initial, growing and final phases were 1840, 2052 and 2256kcal/kg, respectively. The metabolizable energy values of soybean meal, the balance and coefficients of metabolizability of the nutrients of the test diet increased with the age of broiler; however, they were not affected by environmental temperature.
The study was designed to evaluate the productive consequences of fasting neonatal chicks obtained from strains genetically divergent for growing. Four hundred eight chicks from three strains, 160 from breeders selected for high growth rate and excellent feed conversion ratio (Cobb 500), 160 from breeders not selected for fast growth (JA57), and 160 from a white egg layer strain (Hy-Line W98) were allotted in a 3 (strain) x 2 (fasting period - 8 and 36h after hatching) factorial arrangement with 5 replicates of 16 chicks each. Immediately after hatching, all chicks had similar (P>0.05) relative yolk sac weights (14.13%, 14.50%, and 15.49% for Hy-Line, Cobb, and JA57, respectively). The yolk sac retractions were proportionally higher for Cobb and JA57 chicks up to 144 h (6 days) after placement, but were not influenced by 36h of feed fasting. At 7 and 14 days of age only Cobb chicks had their body weight and weight gain significantly (P<0.05) depressed by 36h feed fasting after hatching. Results indicate that broiler chicks with intense initial growth rates (Cobb 500) need an outstanding nutritional supply, either from exogenous (feed) or endogenous (residual yolk) sources, to achieve a final weight compatible with their genetic constitution. For slow-growing chicks (Hy-Line), nutritional supplementation via yolk sac seems to be more important than exogenous supply (feed) of nutrients during the neonatal period.