ABSTRACT. Sustainable production systems, such as the no-tillage system (NTS), have a tendency to increase organic carbon in the soil. However, in Brazilian cotton production, the conventional tillage system (CTS) is predominant, and long-term studies on cotton crop under the NTS are scarce. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of soil management and crop rotation systems on the cotton fiber yield as well as on the carbon and nitrogen accumulation in the soil. This study was conducted in the Brazilian savanna over 9 years and consisted of the following four treatments with different soil management systems: the NTS and CTS with the succession or rotation of crops (cotton, soybean, maize, and Urochloa ruziziensis). The NTS increased the carbon content by 55% in the top 5 cm after 9 years and increased the carbon stock by approximately 20% at a depth of up to 40 cm. Crop rotation with soybean, maize, and cotton was insufficient to increase the carbon stock in the soil under the CTS. In addition to increasing the fiber yield, the cotton crop in a NTS rotated with soybean + U. ruziziensis and with maize + U. ruziziensis increases the carbon stock and nitrogen content in soil.
ABSTRACTCrambe (Crambe abyssinica) has a cropping cycle of around 90 days, being suitable as an alternative to the second grain crop planted after soybean is harvested in the Center West region of Brazil. It is necessary to understand the growth and development dynamics of crambe plants in order to allow correct management of the production factors. This study aimed to describe the growth and development parameters of crambe plants under presence or absence of interspecific competition. The experiment was installed in the fall-winter 2011 in an Oxisoil, in completely randomized blocks design with three replications. Treatments comprised crambe plants growing either in presence or absence of interspecific simulated competition, throughout the cropping cycle. Plants were collected for the growth analysis every 15 days from harvest until 75 days after emergence. Growth parameters leaf area (AF), dry mass of stems/culms (MSC), leaves (MSF) and total (MST) dry mass, leaf area index (IAF), absolute (TCA) and relative (TCR) growth rates, net assimilation rate (TAL), specific leaf area (AFE), leaf area duration (DAF), leaf area ratio (RAF) and leaf mass ratio (RMF) were determined for the crop plants, submitted or not to competition, as well as for the simulated competitor. Crambe is a low competitive crop, being the competition more severe until 60-70 days after emergence. Besides, crop performance under field conditions was properly described by the net assimilation rate (TAL), which is also affected by the leaf area duration (DAF) and leaf mass ratio (RMF).
RESUMOCrambe (Crambe abyssinica) has a cropping cycle of around 90 days, being suitable as an alternative to the second grain crop planted after soybean is harvested in the Center West region of Brazil. It is necessary to understand the growth and development dynamics of crambe plants in order to allow correct management of the production factors. This study aimed to describe the growth and development parameters of crambe plants under presence or absence of interspecific competition. The experiment was installed in the fall-winter 2011 in an Oxisoil, in completely randomized blocks design with three replications. Treatments comprised crambe plants growing either in presence or absence of interspecific simulated competition, throughout the cropping cycle. Plants were collected for the growth analysis every 15 days from harvest until 75 days after emergence. Growth parameters leaf area (AF), dry mass of stems/culms (MSC), leaves (MSF) and total (MST) dry mass, leaf area index (IAF), absolute (TCA) and relative (TCR) growth rates, net assimilation rate (TAL), specific leaf area (AFE), leaf area duration (DAF), leaf area ratio (RAF) and leaf mass ratio (RMF) were determined for the crop plants, subjected or not to competition, as well as for the simulated competitor. Crambe is a low competitive crop, being the competition more severe until 60-70 days after emergence. Besides, crop performance under field conditions was properly described by the net assimilation rate (TAL), which is also affected by the leaf area duration (DAF) and leaf mass ratio (RMF).
Nutritional status diagnosis of cotton and soybean crops through critical level methods is based on sufficiency ranges established many years ago, with little advances since then. However, as nutrient contents in leaves are influenced by sample type and crop yield potential among other factors, it is important to establish regional reference values. The aim of this study was to establish optimum nutrient concentrations in cotton and soybean leaves by adjusting a regression model to nutrient concentration based on DRIS indexes. Database consisted of yield and nutrient content in leaf samples collected in commercial cotton and soybean crops and soybean experimental plots in Mato Grosso do Sul and Mato Grosso States. On each selected place, chemical composition of leaves and crop production (whole cottonseeds or soybean grains) were evaluated at full blooming stage and physiological maturity, respectively. Based on the proposed methodology, sufficiency ranges for indexes leaves of cotton (fifth fully formed leaf) and soybean (third trifoliate leaf, without or with petiole) were determined, whith variation smaller than that presented in other papers reviewed. Specifically for the soybean crop, in addition to confirming the differences in the reference values according to the type of index leaf sampled. Samples without petiole produce significantly higher levels of N, P, B, Fe, Mn and Zn and lower K level, compared with samples with petiole. If disregarded, the manner of sampling can induce false diagnosis of nutritional deficiency or excesss in the crop.
A diagnose dos estados nutricionais do algodoeiro e da soja, pelo método de níveis críticos, tem-se embasado em faixas de suficiência estabelecidas há muitos anos, com pequenas adequações no período. Contudo, considerando-se que os teores foliares podem variar, dentre outros fatores, em função do tipo de amostra coletada e do potencial produtivo da cultura, torna-se importante a definição de valores de referência regionais. Este trabalho teve como objetivo estabelecer os teores adequados de nutrientes para algodoeiro e soja, por meio do ajuste de modelos de regressão para o teor foliar em função do índice de equilíbrio nutricional definido pelo Sistema Integrado de Diagnose e Recomendação (DRIS). Utilizou-se um banco de dados, constituído das produtividades e dos teores de nutrientes em amostras foliares de ambas as espécies, coletadas em talhões de lavouras comerciais e em parcelas experimentais, em Mato Grosso do Sul e Mato Grosso. Foram obtidas faixas de suficiência para as folhas índice de algodoeiro (quinta folha totalmente formada, a partir do ápice) e de soja (terceiro trifólio sem e com pecíolo), com amplitude menor do que aquela estabelecida na literatura para estas culturas. Especificamente, para a soja, confirmou-se a existência de diferenças nos valores de referência em função do tipo de folha índice amostrado. Amostras de folha índice sem pecíolo produzem teores significativamente maiores de N, P, B, Fe, Mn e Zn e menores de K, em relação aos das amostras com pecíolo. A desconsideração do modo de amostragem pode induzir a falsos diagnósticos de deficiências ou excessos nutricionais.
The feasibility of no-tillage in the Cerrado (Savanna-like vegetation of Brazil) depends on the production of sufficient above-ground crop residue, which can be increased by corn-forage intercropping. This study evaluated how above-ground crop residue production and yields of soybean and late-season corn in a soybean-corn rotation were influenced by the following crops in the year before soybean: corn (Zea mays L.) intercropped with Brachiaria (Urochloa) brizantha cv. Marandu, B. decumbens cv. Basilisk, B. ruziziensis, cv. comum., Panicummaximum cv. Tanzânia, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp]; sole corn, forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (cv. Santa Elisa)], and ruzi grass. In March 2005, corn and forage species were planted in alternate rows spaced 0.90 m apart, and sole forage species were planted in rows spaced 0.45 m apart. In October 2005, the forages were killed with glyphosate and soybean was planted. After the soybean harvest in March 2006, sole late-season corn was planted in the entire experimental area. Corn grain and stover yields were unaffected by intercropping. Above-ground crop residue was greater when corn was intercropped with Tanzania grass (10.7 Mg ha-1), Marandu (10.1 Mg ha-1), and Ruzi Grass (9.8 Mg ha-1) than when corn was not intercropped (4.0 Mg ha-1). The intercropped treatments increased the percentage of soil surface covered with crop residue. Soybean and corn grain yields were higher after sole ruzi grass and intercropped ruzi grass than after other crops. The intercropping corn with Brachiaria spp. and corn with Panicum spp. increases above-ground crop residue production and maintains nutrients in the soil without reducing late-season corn yield and the viability of no-till in the midwestern region of Brazil.
A viabilidade do plantio direto no Cerrado brasileiro depende da produção adequada de palha das culturas, que pode ser aumentada pela consorciação de milho (Zea mays L.) com uma espécie forrageira. O trabalho foi implantado em março de 2005 com o objetivo de avaliar a produtividade de resíduos das espécies e de grãos de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill) e de milho safrinha em sucessão. Foram avaliados tratamentos de milho safrinha consorciado com Brachiaria (Urochloa) brizantha cv. Marandu, B. decumbens cv. Basilisk, B. ruziziensis cv. comum, Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, crotalaria juncea (Crotalaria juncea L.), guandu [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp], e também o sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench), a B. ruziziensis e o milho safrinha solteiro. Em outubro de 2005, as espécies foram dessecadas com glyphosate e a soja semeada. Após a colheita de soja em março de 2006, o milho safrinha foi cultivado em área total. O rendimento de grãos e palha de milho não foi influenciado pela espécie em consórcio. A massa seca da parte aérea foi maior quando o milho foi consorciado com Tanzânia (10,7 Mg ha-1), Marandu (10,1 Mg ha-1) e Ruziziensis (9,8 Mg ha-1) do que com o milho solteiro (4,0 Mg ha-1). Nos tratamentos consorciados, houve aumento na porcentagem de solo coberto com os resíduos vegetais. O rendimento de grãos de soja e milho safrinha em sucessão foram maiores na ruziziensis solteira e no milho safrinha consorciado com ruziziensis. O cultivo de milho safrinha consorciado com Brachiaria spp. ou com Panicum spp. aumenta a produção de resíduos culturais, preserva os nutrientes no solo sem reduzir a produtividade do milho e viabiliza o plantio direto no Centro-Oeste do Brasil.
With the objective of studying the effect of increasing phosphorus and potassium doses on the agronomical and technological characteristics of the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), cultivar IAC 20, an experiment was carried out during 1994/95 on a Red-Dark Latossol at the Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Oeste (CPAO) in Ponta Porã, MS, Brazil. A randomized bloch design was used in a 3 x 5 factorial arrangement with four replications. The doses were 30, 60 and 90 kg ha-1 of P2O5, applied as triple superphosphate, and 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha-1 of K2O as KCl. The K2O doses used had a significant influence on the seed cotton yield, plant height and weight of 100 seeds and of bolls.
Com o objetivo de estudar o efeito da utilização de doses de fósforo e de potássio no rendimento e nas características agronômicas do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L.), cv. IAC 20, foi conduzido um experimento em 1994/95, num Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro do Campo Experimental da Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Oeste (CPAO), em Ponta Porã, MS. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, num esquema fatorial 3 x 5, com quatro repetições. As doses foram de 30, 60 e 90 kg ha-1 de P2O5, na forma de superfosfato triplo; 0, 30, 60, 90 e 120 kg ha-1 de K2O, na forma de KCl. Somente as doses de K2O influenciaram significativamente o rendimento de algodão em caroço, a altura da planta e o peso de 100 sementes e dos capulhos.
The authors report the clinical and angiographical findings of two cases of familial hemifacial spasm. This is the fifth description in the literature and presents mother and daughter at the ages of 76 and 51 respectively, in whom the left side was affected. They underwent exams of angioresonance that showed dolichobasilar with left side origin in both patients. The exams also demonstrated postero-inferior cerebellar artery very developed and irregularities in the walls of the vertebral and basilar arteries suggestive of arteriosclerosis in the mother and slightly elongated intracranial vessels in the daughter. Literature review and etiology data of the hemifacial spasm are focused.
Os autores relatam os achados clínicos e angiográficos de dois casos de espasmo hemifacial familiar. Esta é a quinta descrição sobre esse tema na literatura e apresenta mãe e filha com idades de 76 e 51 anos respectivamente, nas quais o lado esquerdo foi o acometido. Exames de angiorressonância realizados nas pacientes revelaram dolicobasilar com origem lateralizada à esquerda para ambos os casos. Também demonstraram artéria cerebelar póstero-inferior muito desenvolvida e irregularidades murais nas artérias vertebrais e basilar sugestivas de arteriosclerose na mãe e vasos intracranianos levemente alongados na filha. Dados de revisão da literatura e sobre a etiologia do espasmo hemifacial são enfocados.