The increasing population of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes on Madeira Island (Portugal) resulted in the first autochthonous dengue outbreak, which occurred in October 2012. Our study establishes the first genetic evaluation based on the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes [cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4)] and knockdown resistance ( kdr ) mutations exploring the colonisation history and the genetic diversity of this insular vector population. We included mosquito populations from Brazil and Venezuela in the analysis as putative geographic sources. The Ae. aegypti population from Madeira showed extremely low mtDNA genetic variability, with a single haplotype for COI and ND4. We also detected the presence of two important kdr mutations and the quasi-fixation of one of these mutations (F1534C). These results are consistent with a unique recent founder event that occurred on the island of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes that carry kdr mutations associated with insecticide resistance. Finally, we also report the presence of the F1534C kdr mutation in the Brazil and Venezuela populations. To our knowledge, this is the first time this mutation has been found in South American Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. Given the present risk of Ae. aegypti re-invading continental Europe from Madeira and the recent dengue outbreaks on the island, this information is important to plan surveillance and control measures.
We report the first isolation of Dengue virus 4 (DENV-4) in the state of São Paulo, from two patients - one living in São José do Rio Preto and the other one in Paulo de Faria, both cities located in the Northwest region of the state. The virus isolations were accomplished in the clone C6/36 Aedes albopictus cell line, followed by indirect immunofluorescence assays, performed with type-specific monoclonal antibodies that showed positive reactions for DENV-4. The results were confirmed by Nested RT-PCR and Real-Time RT-PCR assays. The introduction of DENV-4 in a country that already has to deal with the transmission of three other serotypes increases the possibility of the occurrence of more severe cases of the disease. The importance of early detection of dengue cases, before the virus spreads and major outbreaks occur, should be emphasized.
Relatamos o primeiro isolamento do vírus Dengue 4 (DENV-4) no Estado de São Paulo, de dois pacientes residentes em São José do Rio Preto e Paulo de Faria, ambos municípios localizados na região Noroeste do Estado. O isolamento do vírus foi realizado em clone C6/36, linhagem de células de Aedes albopictus seguido por imunofluorescência indireta, realizada com anticorpos monoclonais tipo específicos, que apresentou reação positiva para DENV-4. Os resultados foram confirmados por testes de Nested RT-PCR e RT-PCR em Tempo Real. A introdução do DENV-4 no país, com uma população suscetível a esse vírus e que já convive com a transmissão de outros três sorotipos, aumenta a possibilidade da ocorrência de casos mais graves da doença. Deve ser enfatizada a importância da detecção precoce de casos de dengue, antes que ocorra a propagação do vírus e que surtos importantes aconteçam.