ABSTRACT Plants harbour diverse communities of fungal species in their internal compartments. Endophytic fungi help their hosts to establish, survive, and adapt to different environments. Here, we examined the diversity of endophytic fungi in the leaflets and branches of Poincianella pyramidalis, a plant species endemic to the Brazilian tropical dry forest (Caatinga). A total of 360 fragments of leaflets and branches were analysed and 189 endophytic fungi were isolated and distributed among 21 ascomycetous genera based on their ITS and LSU rDNA sequences. Diaporthe was the most frequently identified genus, followed by Didymella and Rhytidhysteron. The colonisation rate of plant fragments was higher in the branches (74 %) than in leaflets (14 %). The richness of the genera of endophytic fungi was also higher in the branches than in leaflets, whereas no difference was observed in endophyte diversity between the plant parts, based on Shannon-Wiener and Fisher alpha diversity indices. Our results indicate that endemic plant species from Brazilian dry forest, such as P. pyramidalis, are predominantly colonised by ascomycetous fungi, especially members of the class Dothideomycetes.
ABSTRACT We studied the fungal endophyte community of the leaves of Myracrodruon urundeuva in Brazil along with their potential to produce L-asparaginase. In total, 187 endophytes were isolated. The colonization rate of leaf fragments from caatinga (10.41 %) was lower than those from brejo de altitude (39.58 %). Sequences of ITS rDNA from all endophytes revealed relationships with Ascomycota (Botryosphaeriales, Chaetothyriales, Diaporthales, Eurotiales, Glomerellales, Hypocreales, and Pleosporales) and Basidiomycota (Polyporales). The most frequent endophytes were members of the genus Diaporthe. Talaromyces was an indicator genus for caatinga while Phyllosticta, Diaporthe, and Colletotrichum were for brejo de altitude. The composition of endophytic fungi in caatinga and brejo de altitude differed significantly, its richness and diversity (H' = 3.41) being significantly higher in brejo de altitude. Diaporthe sp. URM 7793 was the best producer of L-asparaginase (2.41 U/g), followed by Diaporthe sp. URM 7779 (2.00 U/g), Talaromyces sp. URM 7785 (1.91 U/g), and Diaporthe sp. URM 7792 (1.47 U/g). The composition of endophytic fungi assemblages is strongly influenced by the type of ecosystem. In its natural habitat, M. urundeuva harbors an important diversity of endophytes, which could be used to produce L-asparaginase.
ABSTRACT: Dermatophytes are fungi that can cause superficial infections of the skin, hair and nails in man and animals. The most frequent dermatophyte species isolated from dogs and cats are Microsporum gypseum, most notably Microsporum canis. The crucial role during the infection process is the production of extracellular enzymes essential for the invasion and establishment of the pathogen in the host tissue. The objective of this research was to isolate dermatophytes from dogs and cats and evaluate the enzymatic profile of the isolates obtained. Hair samples and epidermal scales were collected from dogs and cats in veterinary facilities in Recife-PE, and the isolates were identified based on macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. The qualitative analysis of the enzymes urease, protease, lipase, collagenase and phospholipase was evaluated from the isolated dermatophytes. During 10 months, a total of 106 animals, comprising of 99 dogs and seven cats with clinical signs, regardless of sex and race were evaluated. Only eight animals were confirmed with dermatophytosis, mostly dogs (n=7), being six affected by M. canis and one by M. gypseum, the race most affected was Yorkshire (n=3). However, only one cat was confirmed with M. canis. No sex-related predisposition was observed regarding the occurrence of dermatophytosis in dogs and cats evaluated. Isolated dermatophytes showed similar profiles for the enzymes urease, lipase, protease, phospholipase and collagenase, important characteristic for pathogenic infections. The diagnosis of this zoonosis based on microbiological confirmation and a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms is of great importance for the treatment and prevention of fungal diseases in animals.
RESUMO: Os dermatófitos são fungos que podem causar infecções superficiais da pele, cabelo e unhas em humanos e animais. As espécies de dermatófitos mais frequentemente isoladas dos cães e gatos afetados por micoses são Microsporum gypseum e principalmente Microsporum canis. O papel crucial durante o processo de infecção é a produção de enzimas extracelulares essenciais para a invasão e estabelecimento do agente patogênico no tecido do hospedeiro. O objetivo deste trabalho foi isolar dermatófitos de cães e gatos e avaliar o perfil enzimático dos isolados obtidos. Amostras de pelos e escamas epidérmicas foram coletadas de cães e gatos em instalações veterinárias em Recife/PE, e os isolados foram identificados com base nas características macroscópicas e microscópicas. A análise qualitativa das enzimas urease, protease, lipase, colagenase e fosfolipase foi avaliada a partir dos dermatófitos isolados. Durante 10 meses, um total de 106 animais, que compreendeu de 99 cães e sete gatos com sinais clínicos, independentemente do sexo e raça foram avaliados. Apenas oito animais foram confirmados com dermatofitose, principalmente cães (n=7), sendo seis afetados por M. canis e um por M. gypseum, a raça mais afetada foi Yorkshire (n=3). No entanto, apenas um gato foi confirmado com M. canis. Não foi observada predisposição relacionada ao sexo quanto à ocorrência de dermatofitose nos cães e gatos avaliados. Os dermatófitos isolados apresentaram perfis semelhantes para as enzimas urease, lipase, protease, fosfolipase e colagenase, característica importante em infecções patogênicas. O diagnóstico clínico destas zoonoses com base na confirmação microbiológica e uma compreensão dos mecanismos subjacentes é de grande importância para o tratamento e prevenção de doenças fúngicas em animais.
Bauhinia forficata is native to South America and used with relative success in the folk medicine in Brazil. The diversity, antibacterial activity, and extracellular hydrolytic enzymes of endophytic fungi associated with this plant were studied. Plant samples, which included leaves, sepals, stems, and seeds, were used. Ninety-five endophytic fungal were isolated (18 from leaves, 22 from sepals, 46 from stems, and nine from seeds), comprising 28 species. The most frequently isolated species were Acremonium curvulum (9.5%), Aspergillus ochraceus (7.37%), Gibberella fujikuroi (10.53%), Myrothecium verrucaria (10.53%) and Trichoderma piluliferum(7.37%). Diversity and species richness were higher in stem tissues, and Sorensen’s index of similarity between the tissues was low. Eleven fungi showed antibacterial activity. Aspergillus ochraceus, Gibberella baccata, Penicillium commune, and P. glabrum were those with the greatest antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and/or Streptococcus pyogenes. Thirteen species showed proteolytic activity, particularly Phoma putaminum. Fourteen species were cellulase positive, particularly the Penicillium species and Myrmecridium schulzeri. All isolates tested were xylanase positive and 10 showed lipolytic activity, especially Penicillium glabrum. It is clear that the endophytic fungi from B. forficata have potential for the production of bioactive compounds and may be a source of new therapeutic agents for the effective treatment of diseases in humans, other animals, and plants. To our knowledge, this is the first study of endophytic fungi from different tissues of B. forficata and their biotechnological potential.
After the World Health Organization officially declared the end of the first pandemic of the XXI century in August 2010, the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus has been disseminated in the human population. In spite of its sustained circulation, very little on phylogenetic data or oseltamivir (OST) resistance is available for the virus in equatorial regions of South America. In order to shed more light on this topic, we analysed the haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 positive samples collected during the pandemic period in the Pernambuco (PE), a northeastern Brazilian state. Complete HA sequences were compared and amino acid changes were related to clinical outcome. In addition, the H275Y substitution in NA, associated with OST resistance, was investigated by pyrosequencing. Samples from PE were grouped in phylogenetic clades 6 and 7, being clustered together with sequences from South and Southeast Brazil. The D222N/G HA gene mutation, associated with severity, was found in one deceased patient that was pregnant. Additionally, the HA mutation K308E, which appeared in Brazil in 2010 and was only detected worldwide the following year, was identified in samples from hospitalised cases. The resistance marker H275Y was not identified in samples tested. However, broader studies are needed to establish the real frequency of resistance in this Brazilian region.
Opportunistic mycoses have been increasingly observed among immunocompromised patients. We describe a case in which Engyodontium album was isolated and cultured from the blood of a patient with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. E. album grew at 37ºC and showed proteinase activity, both indicators of pathogenicity. This is the first time that this organism has been reported as agent of fungaemia.
Micoses oportunistas têm sido progressivamente observadas entre pacientes imunocomprometidos. Nós descrevemos um caso no qual Engyodontium album foi isolado e crescido do sangue de um paciente com a Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida. E. album cresceu a 37ºC e exibiu atividade proteásica, ambos indicadores de patogenicidade. Esta é a primeira vez que este organismo foi reportado como agente de fungemia.
This study investigated the ocurrence of Malassezia species in clinically healthy students and with macules with a slight fawn discoloration and characterized the isolates as to the pathogenicity factors such as growth at 37ºC, lipase, phospholipase and protease detection. Clinical samples were collected from different body sites of one hundred students of different ages and both sexes. The samples, obtained by scrapping the skin surface and the scalp, were treated with potassa and cultured. Cultures were obtained in Petri dishes containing Sabouraud agar medium added of olive oil, incubated at room temperature and at 37ºC. Culture identifications were based in their morphological and physiological properties. Lipase, phospholipase and protease detection was performed in specific media on Petri dishes for formation of a zone. Globose, spherical yeast cells and hypha were investigated by direct microscopy of clinical materials. Malassezia furfur was detected in seven samples and M. sympodialis in four. All Malassezia cultures presented lipase activity, but none was phospholipase positive. Protease activity was observed in two M. furfur and two M. simpodialis isolates.
A ocorrência de espécies Malassezia em estudantes clinicamente sadios e com máculas com leve descoloração foi investigada e os isolados caracterizados quanto a fatores de patogenicidade como crescimento a 37ºC, detecção de lípase, fosfolipase e protease. Amostras clínicas de 100 estudantes de ambos os sexos, diferentes idades e sítios corpóreos foram obtidas por escarificação da superfície da pele e do couro cabeludo e examinadas com hidróxido de potássio e submetidas à cultura. As culturas foram obtidas em meio ágar Sabouraud adicionado de óleo de oliva, em placa de Petri, incubadas a temperatura ambiente e a 37ºC. A identificação foi realizada através das propriedades morfológicas e fisiológicas. A detecção de lipase, fosfolipase e protease foi analisada em meios específicos em placa de Petri pela formação de halo. O exame microscópico direto mostrou células globosas, esféricas e hifa. Malassezia furfur foi detectada em sete amostras e M. sympodialis em quatro. Todas as culturas apresentaram atividade lipásica, mas nenhuma foi fosfolipase positiva. A atividade proteásica foi observada em dois isolados de M. furfur e dois de M. simpodialis.