ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to verify the influence of spraying nozzles on the selectivity of herbicides in eucalyptus seedlings. XR 110.02 and TTI 110.02 spraying nozzles were used for the application of the herbicides: control treatment; oxyfluorfen (150 g ha–1) and saflufenacil (98 g ha–1). The experimental arrangement was a 2 × 3 factorial one (two spraying nozzles × 3 herbicides), using a randomized complete block design with four replications. The application was performed 15 days after transplanting the seedlings. Plant height (PH), stem diameter (SD), number of leaves (NL), total dry matter (DM), leaf area (LA), visual phytotoxicity (P), quantum efficiency of photosystem II - Fv/Fm, electron transport rate (ETR) and SPAD (S) index were evaluated. The XR 110.02 and TTI 110.02 nozzles did not change the selectivity of oxyfluorfen and saflufenacil.
ABSTRACT This work aimed to develop chicken meatballs with five levels of animal fat replacement by canola oil and to evaluate the product’s behavior during 120 days of storage. For that, analyzes were performed in the centesimal composition, fatty acid profile, shelf life and sensory parameters. The centesimal composition of the product did not present significant difference (p>0.05) between the treatments. However, canola oil addition improved the lipid profile, atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes, and the ratios of PUFAs/SFAs (0.91 to 1.61) and n6/n3 (12.63 to 3.74) in the products. Animal fat replacement and storage time also reduced meatballs Aw and pH. No differences in texture between treatments were detected after 30 days of storage. The lipid oxidation presented by mean values of TBARs ranged from 0.71 and 1.35 mg MDA/kg, indicating the onset and the regression of lipid oxidation. The color parameters exhibited a spectrum towards the luminous yellow color, predominant in both chicken meat and canola oil. The results of this study indicate that the substitution of animal fat by canola oil is promising in the production of meat products with good acceptability (70%) during the sensory analysis.
The objective of this work was to evaluate the short-term and the residual effect of retorted oil shale (ROS) rates on the C retention of crop residues in the soil. The mineralization and C retention of soybean leaves and stems enriched with 13C were evaluated, in soil with and without history of ROS application and in the presence and absence of increasing ROS rates. There was a short-term effect of ROS on C retention in the soil. This effect only occurred with the mixture of leaves + 3 Mg ha-1 ROS, in which C retention in the soil surpassed by 21% the one observed with the sole application of leaves. ROS has the potential to retain C in the soil.
O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de curto prazo e o residual de doses de xisto retortado (XR) sobre a retenção do C de resíduos culturais no solo. Foram avaliadas a mineralização e a retenção de C de folhas e talos de soja enriquecidos com 13C, em solo com e sem histórico de aplicação de XR e na presença e na ausência de doses crescentes de XR. Houve efeito de curto prazo do XR sobre a retenção de C no solo. Esse efeito ocorreu somente com a mistura de folhas + 3 Mg ha-1 de XR, em que a retenção de C no solo superou em 21% aquela observada com a aplicação isolada das folhas. O XR apresenta potencial de reter C no solo.
The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of alternative feedstuffs as partial substitutes of corn and soybean in free-range broiler diets on performance, carcass yield and technical-economic viability. A total of 400 Pescoço Pelado broilers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design (CRD), with four treatments (treatment 1:Control; treatment 2: 10% rice bran inclusion; treatment 3: 10% ground cassava leaves; and treatment 4: 10% ground lead tree hay) with four replicates per treatment. Each replicate consisted of a group of 25 birds per paddock, separated per sex. Initial weight (IW), final weight (FW), body weight (BW), daily weight gain (DWG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were evaluated. Carcass, cuts (breast, thigh, drumstick, back, neck, leg and wings), abdominal fat and giblets (gizzard, heart and liver) yields were determined. The technical-economic viability of each treatment was assessed by determining the cost of feed per kg body weight, economic efficiency index and cost. The highest final weights were obtained with the use of rice bran. Rice bran and cassava leaves promoted higher carcass yield, as well as lower back and abdominal fat yields. The use of cassava leaves showed better economic efficiency among the treatments with alternative feedstuffs. The use of alternative feedstuffs at 10% inclusion in substitution of corn and soybean meal did not not result in major changes in performance and carcass parameters, and economic efficiency, and therefore, their use is recommended when the availability or the price of key ingredients, such as soybean meal and corn, increase.
In this study, the physical-chemical characteristics and proximate composition of the meat of of two strains of broilers (Paraíso Pedrês and Máster gris plumé - Super Pesadão, utilized for semi-intensive rearing) and Cobb® strain, utilized in intensive rearing systems) were evaluated. Differences related to strain and sex (males and females) were studied. Cobb® broilers were slaughtered at 45 days and the other strains at 85 days. The following characteristics were evaluated in breast and thigh meat: moisture, protein, ether extract, ashes, color (CIEL*a*b*), final pH, cooking loss (CL) and shear force (SF). Bird strain and sex influenced breast color parameters, with Cobb® presenting higher yellowness (b*) and redness (a*) means, whereas females had higher b* values and males, a* values. Paraíso Pedrês had lower SF values. As to proximate composition, there was an interaction between strain and sex, with higher ether extract values in the meat of Super Pesadão males. Cobb® birds presented higher lightness (L*) and b* values, and there was no effect of sex on color parameters. Higher pH and SF values were found in the meat of Super Pesadão birds. There was an interaction between strain and sex for b* and SF values, with higher b* values obtained with Cobb® males, while differences between sex, with superiority for females in the Paraíso Pedrês strain and for males in the Cobb® strain were found. Increased values of SF for males were obtained for Super Pesadão strain. Both Paraíso Pedrês and Super Pesadão strains presented physicochemical and proximate composition characteristics similar to those of Cobb® strain in the cuts breast and thigh so that in a few parameters, no differences between the birds kept in this two rearing systems were found.
An experiment was carried out to evaluate carcass traits of male and female broilers of two genetic strains (Paraíso Pedrês and Pescoço Pelado), slaughtered at 65, 75, 85 and 95 days of age, and reared under a semi-extensive production system. The following parameters were evaluated: body weight at slaughter (BWs), carcass weight (CW), carcass yield (CY), parts yield, including breast, drumstick, thighs, back, neck, feet, wings, abdominal fat pad (AF), and giblets (gizzard, heart, liver). Paraíso Pedrês males presented higher BWs and CW. Paraíso Pedrês females had higher breast yield. Thighs and drumstick yields were higher in Pescoço Pelado males. Back yield was similar at 85 and 95 days of age, wing yield declined with age. AF yield was higher in Paraíso Pedrês and in females. GY was affected by sex and slaughter age. The results of this work lead to the conclusion that Paraíso Pedrês males reach higher live and carcass weights at 85 and 95 days of age, and that breast yield is higher in this strain. On the other hand, Pescoço Pelado males present higher drumstick and thighs yields. Therefore, the choice of genetic strain, sex and slaughter weight will determine carcasses with different parts yield.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the quantity and quality of spray deposition on Commelina benghalensis plants, considering application volumes, spray nozzles and spray nozzle bar angle. Five stems of plants/pot were planted. The experimental treatments were arranged in a randomized design with twenty replications. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions and the solution applied 40 days after the stems were transplanted, with the plants being 30 to 40 cm long. The treatments consisted of five spray nozzles (TX-VK 6, TX-VK 8, XR 11001 VS, XR 11002 VS and TJ60 11002 VS), tested at different application angles (0º and +30º) except for TJ60 11002 VS, and two different solution volumes (100 and 200 L ha -1). Brilliant blue FDC-1 was used as a tracer solution, at 500 ppm to determine spray deposition. After application, twenty plant stems were immediately collected, and washed in 100 mL of distilled water for posterior tracer quantification in a spectrophotometer. The data was fit to a regression curve using the Gompertz model. The results showed that, regardless of the type of spray nozzle used, the volume of 200 L ha-1 provided the highest deposition on the plants. The XR 11001 VS nozzle, with volume of 100 L ha-1 provided the best uniformity deposition. However, when using the angle of +30º, deposition increases occurred when the volume of 100 L ha-1 was used, with best uniformity being obtained with volume of 200 L ha -1.
O objetivo deste estudo foi o de avaliar a quantidade e qualidade da deposição da calda de pulverização em plantas de Commelina benghalensis, considerando os volumes de aplicação, as pontas de pulverização e o ângulo dos bicos na barra de pulverização. Foram utilizadas cinco hastes de plantas por vaso. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 20 repetições. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação e a aplicação da calda foi efetuada após 40 dias do transplantio das hastes, quando estavam com 30 a 40 cm de comprimento. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por cinco pontas de pulverização (TX-VK 6, TX-VK 8, XR 11001 VS, XR 11002 VS e TJ60 11002 VS), sendo testadas com dois ângulos de aplicação (0º e +30º), exceto a TJ60 11002 VS, e todas com dois volumes de calda distintos (100 e 200 L ha-1). Foi utilizado como traçador o corante Azul Brilhante FDC-1 na concentração de 500 ppm, para determinar a deposição da calda de pulverização. Após a aplicação, 20 hastes no total foram imediatamente coletadas e, em seguida, lavadas em 100 mL de água destilada, para posterior quantificação do traçador em espectrofotômetro. Os dados foram transformados em valores de depósitos por grama de massa seca e ajustados à curva de regressão pelo modelo de Gompertz. Os resultados evidenciaram que, independentemente da ponta utilizada, o volume de 200 L ha-1 proporcionou os maiores depósitos médios e pontuais nas plantas. Quanto à uniformidade do depósito de calda sobre as plantas, a ponta XR 11001 VS no volume de 100 L ha-1 proporcionou a melhor uniformidade. Contudo, quando se utilizou o ângulo de +30º, ocorreram acréscimos dos depósitos ao se utilizar o volume de 100 L ha-1, e, nesse caso, houve melhor uniformidade para o volume de 200 L ha-1.
An experiment was carried out at the NuPAM-FCA/UNESP, Botucatu Campus, São Paulo, Brazil, to estimate the deposition and distribution of a marker solution on the P. vulgaris and B. decumbens plants, using a sprayer simulator under a controlled environment. The treatments were: nozzle fan jet XR Teejet (XR110.02VS) + surfactant (Aterbane BR - 0.5% v/v); nozzle Conejet (TXVK-4) + surfactant (Aterbane BR - 0.5% v/v); nozzle fan jet XR Teejet (XR110.02VS) and nozzle Conejet (TXVK-4). A solution of NaCl (0.5%) + Orange Poliglow colour (0.5%) + mancozeb (0.5%) was applied in all treatments. The experimental units consisted of pots with two B. decumbens target plants underneath one P. vulgaris target plant. Droplet distribution over B. decumbens leaves was evaluated with black light, and deposition by electric conductivity of the sprayer solution collected by washing the targets in deionized water. The spraying nozzles, XR Teejet and Conejet, did not show deposition difference on P. vulgaris leaves, under equal spray solution conditions. However, the nozzle with fan jet XR Teejet (XR110.02VS) and the nozzle Conejet (TXVK-4) provided, respectively, 67.1% and 61.5% increase on the leaf area deposition and 106,4% and 66.9% increase dry weight increase, when compared to the nozzle with fan jet XR Teejet (XR110.02VS) + surfactant (Aterbane BR - 0.5% v/v) and the nozzle Conejet (TXVK-4) + surfactant (Aterbane BR - 0.5% v/v). Nozzle Conejet provided higher uniform distribution, when compared to nozzle XR Teejet.
Com o objetivo de avaliar a deposição e distribuição de solução traçante em plantas de feijoeiro e capim-braquiária, foi conduzido experimento no NuPAM-FCA/ UNESP, campus de Botucatu-SP, utilizando um simulador de pulverização em ambiente controlado. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: bico jato plano XR Teejet (XR110.02VS) + surfactante Aterbane BR (0,5% v/v); bico jato cônico Conejet (TXVK-4) + surfactante Aterbane BR (0,5% v/v); bico jato plano XR Teejet (XR110.02VS); e bico jato cônico Conejet (TXVK-4). Em todos os tratamentos foi aplicada uma solução de NaCl (0,5% p/v) + corante Poliglow laranja (0,5% p/v) + mancozeb (0,5% p/v). As unidades experimentais constituíram-se de vasos com duas plantas-alvo de capim-braquiária posicionadas sob uma planta-alvo de feijoeiro. A visualização da distribuição das gotas nas folhas de capim-braquiária foi efetuada com auxílio de luz negra, e o depósito da calda na superfície das plantas foi quantificado através da condutividade elétrica da solução aplicada e coletada por meio de lavagem de ambos os alvos. Os bicos de pulverização, jato plano (XR Teejet) e cônico (Conejet), não apresentaram diferença no depósito nos folíolos totais de feijoeiro quando submetidos a mesma condição de calda de pulverização. No entanto, o bico jato plano XR Teejet (XR110.02VS) e o bico jato cônico Conejet (TXVK-4) proporcionaram aumento de 67,1 e 61,5% na deposição da calda em relação a área foliar e 106,4 e 66,9% para matéria seca, respectivamente, em relação ao bico jato plano XR Teejet (XR110.02VS) + surfactante Aterbane BR (0,5% v/v) e ao bico jato cônico Conejet (TXVK-4) + surfactante Aterbane BR (0,5% v/v). Para o capim-braquiária, o bico cônico Conejet proporcionou deposição superior e distribuição mais uniforme em relação ao jato plano XR Teejet.