Abstract Purpose To evaluate the effect of a PP mesh on duct deferens morphology, testicular size and testosterone levels. Methods Forty adult male rats were distributed into groups: 1) no surgery; 2) inguinotomy; 3) mesh placed on the duct deferens; and 4) mesh placed on the spermatic funiculus. After 90 postoperative days, the inguinal region was resected, and blood samples were collected for the measurement of serum testosterone (pg/dl). The ducts deferens were sectioned in three axial sections according to the relationship with the mesh — cranial, medial and caudal. The wall thickness and duct deferens lumen area were measured. Results The morphology of the duct deferens was preserved in all groups. The mesh placement did not alter this morphology in any of the analyzed segments. Surgery, with or without mesh placement, did not alter the morphology, wall thickness or lumen area (p>0.05). In all operated groups, serum testosterone levels were similar (p>0.05) but there was a decrease in testicle size (p<0.05). Conclusion Surgery, with or without mesh placement, did not alter the morphology of the duct deferens and, although this treatment resulted in testicular size reduction, it did not affect serum testosterone levels.
Abstract Purpose To evaluate the effect of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) in newborn rats submitted to hypoxia and reoxygenation (H/R) conditions in an experimental model of necrotizing enterocolitis. Methods Eight pregnant rats and their 70 cubs were used (5 groups) and exposed to H/R conditions and received NAC at different times. The animals in the H/R groups were placed in a gas chamber (100% CO2) for 10 minutes and then reoxygenated for 10 minutes (100% O2), twice a day for the first three days of life, with a six-hour span between events. On the third day of life, the animals were anesthetized, laparotomized and the intestines were resected. Results The H/R and NAC groups showed changes in the intestinal wall in relation to the number, height and width of the villi when compared to the control group (p<0.0001), but with better preservation of structures in the NAC group. There were no differences between groups regarding the number (%) of mitoses. Conclusion The administration of NAC decreased the lesions in the intestinal wall of rats submitted to H/R, therefore suggesting that this drug can be used to prevent the development of necrotizing enterocolitis in newborns.
Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the functional and structural response of tadalafil effects in the intestinal mucosa, using an experimental model of hypoxia and reoxygenation injury in rats. Methods: The animals were divided into 4 groups: CTL, H/R, H/R+Td and M+Td. The newborn rats allocated in groups H/R, H/R+Td and M+Td were submitted twice a day, to a gas chamber with CO2 at 100% for 10 minutes and afterward reoxygenation with O2 at 98% for 10 minutes, in the three first days of life. Tadalafil dose was given to newborn of group H/R+Td and to the pregnant rat of group M+Td. Histological analysis was made with hematoxylin-eosin technique and oxidative stress through nitrite and nitrate levels and lipid peroxidation. Results: The histological analysis showed a reduction of mucosa alterations in the groups that received tadalafil. In the oxidative stress evaluation, occurred an increase of NO levels and less lipidic peroxidation in the ileum segments that received tadalafil. Conclusion: Tadalafil provides tissue protection when administered independently to both, pregnant or newborns.
OBJECTIVE: Despite advances in diffuse peritonitis treatment protocols, some cases develop unfavorably. With the advent of vacuum therapy, the use of laparostomy to treat peritonitis has gained traction. Another treatment modality is continuous peritoneal lavage. However, maintaining this technique is difficult and has been associated with controversial results. We propose a new model of continuous peritoneal lavage that takes advantage of the features and benefits of vacuum laparostomy. METHOD: Pigs (Landrace and Large White) under general anesthesia were submitted to laparostomy through which a multiperforated tube was placed along each flank and exteriorized in the left and lower right quadrants. A vacuum dressing was applied, and intermittent negative pressure was maintained. Peritoneal dialysis solution (PDS) was then infused through the tubes for 36 hours. The stability of peritoneostomy with intermittent infusion of fluids, the system resistance to obstruction and leakage, water balance, hemodynamic and biochemical parameters were evaluated. Fluid disposition in the abdominal cavity was analyzed through CT. RESULTS: Even when negative pressure was not applied, the dressing maintained the integrity of the system, and there were no leaks or blockage of the catheters during the procedure. The aspirated volume by vacuum laparostomy was similar to the infused volume (9073.5±1496.35 mL versus 10165±235.73 mL, p=0.25), and there were no major changes in hemodynamic or biochemical analysis. According to CT images, 60 ml/kg PDS was sufficient to occupy all intra-abdominal spaces. CONCLUSION: Continuous peritoneal lavage with negative pressure proved to be technically possible and may be an option in the treatment of diffuse peritonitis.
OBJECTIVES: Intestinal obstruction has a high mortality rate when therapeutic treatment is delayed. Resuscitation in intestinal obstruction requires a large volume of fluid, and fluid combinations have been studied. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of hypertonic saline solution (HS) with pentoxifylline (PTX) on apoptosis, oxidative stress and survival rate. METHODS: Wistar rats were subjected to intestinal obstruction and ischemia through a closed loop ligation of the terminal ileum and its vessels. After 24 hours, the necrotic bowel segment was resected, and the animals were randomized into four groups according to the following resuscitation strategies: Ringer's lactate solution (RL) (RL-32 ml/kg); RL+PTX (25 mg/kg); HS+PTX (HS, 7.5%, 4 ml/kg), and no resuscitation (IO-intestinal obstruction and ischemia). Euthanasia was performed 3 hours after resuscitation to obtain kidney and intestine samples. A malondialdehyde (MDA) assay was performed to evaluate oxidative stress, and histochemical analyses (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling [TUNEL], Bcl-2 and Bax) were conducted to evaluate kidney apoptosis. Survival was analyzed with another series of animals that were observed for 15 days. RESULTS: PTX in combination with RL or HS reduced the MDA levels (nmol/mg of protein), as follows: kidney IO=0.42; RL=0.49; RL+PTX=0.31; HS+PTX=0.34 (p<0.05); intestine: IO=0.42; RL=0.48; RL+PTX=0.29; HS+PTX=0.26 (p<0.05). The number of labeled cells for TUNEL and Bax was lower in the HS+PTX group than in the other groups (p<0.05). The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was lower in the HS+PTX group than in the other groups (p<0.05). The survival rate on the 15th day was higher in the HS+PTX group (77%) than in the RL+PTX group (11%). CONCLUSION: PTX in combination with HS enhanced survival and attenuated oxidative stress and apoptosis. However, when combined with RL, PTX did not reduce apoptosis or mortality.
Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the oxidative stress, resulting from ischemia and hepatic reperfusion, in mice with non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis. Methods: C57BL/6 male mice were used. Part of them were ob/ob mice, and the other part was fed with standard or MCD diets - this last used to develop steatohepatitis. The animals - MCD-I/R, ob/ob-I/R and I/R groups - were submitted to 30 minutes of partial hepatic ischemia, followed by reperfusion for 24 hours. The blood was collected, for biochemical analysis of AST, and the liver removed for assessment of TBARS and nitrite, and of histology. Results: After the I/R, the animal fed with MCD diet presented higher AST levels (MCD-I/R: 967±349U/L / ob/ob-I/R: 606±18 U/L / I/R: 311±172 U/L), TBARS (MCD-I/R: 7±1 nM/mg protein / ob/ob-I/R: 3±1 nM/mg protein / I/R: 3±1 nM/mg protein) and nitrite (MCD-I/R: 614±87 µg/mL / ob/ob-I/R: 512±81 µg/mL / I/R: 459±29 µg/mL) than the ob/ob mice, when both groups were compared to animals fed with standard diet. Regarding histology, the steatosis level (azonal macrovesicular steatosis of level 3 - >66%) and hepatic fibrosis (periportal and perisinusoidal of level 2) was also more intense, but both animal models presented lobular inflammation of level 3 (>66%). Conclusions: The murine model fed with MCD diet is suitable for the assessment of oxidative stress in hepatic I/R injury associated with the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Although both murine models showed inflammatory infiltrate and macro and micro vesicular steatosis.
Abstract Purpose: To develop an experimental model of intestinal ischemia and obstruction followed by surgical resection of the damaged segment and reestablishment of intestinal transit, looking at bacterial translocation and survival. Methods: After anesthesia, Wistar rats was subject to laparotomy, intestinal ischemia and obstruction through an ileal ligature 1.5cm of ileum cecal valve; and the mesenteric vessels that irrigate upstream of the obstruction site to approximately 7 to 10 cm were ligated. Abdominal wall was closed. Three, six or twenty-four hours after, rats were subject to enterectomy followed by an end to end anastomosis. After 24h, mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, spleen and lung tissues were surgically removed. It was studied survival rate and bacterial translocation. GraphPadPrism statistical program was used. Results: Animals with intestinal ischemia and obstruction for 3 hours survived 24 hours after enterectomy; 6hx24h: survival was 70% at 24 hours; 24hx24h: survival was 70% and 40%, before and after enterectomy, respectively. Culture of tissues showed positivity on the 6hx24h and negativity on the 3hx24h. Conclusion: The model that best approached the clinic was the one of 6x24h of ischemia and intestinal obstruction, in which it was observed bacterial translocation and low mortality rate.
Abstract Purpose: To establish and evaluate the feasibility of continuous peritoneal lavage with vacuum peritoneostomy in an animal model. Methods: Eight pigs aged 3-4 months, females, were anesthetized and submitted to laparotomy and installation of a continuous peritoneal lavage with vacuum peritoneostomy. The sta-bility of the system, the physiological effects of washing with NaCl 0.9% and the sys-tem clearance were evaluated. Results: Stability of vacuum peritoneostomy was observed, with no catheter leaks or obstructions and the clearance proved adequate, however, the mean volume of fluids aspirated by the peritoneostomy at the end of the experiment was higher than the volume infused by the catheters (p=0.02). Besides that, the animals presented a progressive increase in heart rate (p=0.04) and serum potassium (p=0.02). Conclusion: The continuous peritoneal lavage technique with vacuum peritoneostomy is feasible and presents adequate clearance.
Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effect of remote ischemic preconditioning (r-IPC) administered to pregnant rats, in the ileum of newborn rats subjected to hypoxia and reoxygenation. Methods: We used three pregnant rats and their newborn rats distributed in three groups: 1) Control (C) - Newborn rats born from a pregnant rat which did not undergo any intervention; 2) Hypoxia-Reoxygenation (H/R) - Newborn rats born from a pregnant rat which did not undergo any intervention, and were subjected to hypoxia-reoxygenation; 3) Remote Ischemic Preconditioning (r-IPC) - newborn rats born from a pregnant rat which was subjected to remote ischemic preconditioning twenty-four hours before giving birth and the newborn rats were subjected to hypoxia-reoxygenation. Segments of ileum were prepared for histological analysis by HE and immunohistochemistry by the Ki67 to evaluate cell proliferation, crypt depth and villus height and evaluation of apoptosis by cleaved caspase-3. Results: The intensity of the lesions was lower in the r-IPC than in the H/R group, showing significant difference (p<0.01). The r-IPC group showed a higher proliferative activity compared to the H/R group (p<0.01), with deeper crypts (r-IPC > H/R - p < 0.05), and higher villi, showing significant difference (r-IPC > H/R - (p <0.01). The occurrence of apoptosis in the H/R group was lower in comparison to groups C and r-IPC, with significant difference (H/R < r-IPC; p<0.05). Conclusion: The remote ischemic preconditioning applied to the pregnant rat protected the ileum of newborn rats subjected to hypoxia and reoxygenation, with decreased intensity of the lesions in the ileum mucosa and preservation of proliferative activity, keeping the villus height and crypt depth similar to group C.
ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of remote ischemic preconditioning (IPC-R) in the fetal small bowel transplantation model. METHODS: Two groups were constituted: The Isogenic transplant (ISO, C57BL/6 mice, n=24) and the allogenic transplant (ALO, BALB/c mice, n=24). In each group, the animals were distributed with and without IPC-R. It was obtained the following subgroups: Tx, IPC-R, Fk, IPC-Fk, in both strains. Intestinal grafts were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemically. RESULTS: The graft development evaluation in ISO group showed that IPC-R reduced the development compared with ISO-Tx (5.2±0.4 vs 9.0±0.8) and IPC-R-Fk increased the graft development compared with IPC-R (11.2±0.7 and 10.2±0.8). In ALO group, IPC-Fk increased the development compared with ALO-Tx and ALO with IPC-R (6.0±0.8, 9.0±1.2, 0.0±0.0, 0.5±0.3). The PCNA expression was increased in ISO group treated with Fk and IPC-R compared to other groups (12.2±0.8 vs Tx: 8.8±0.9, IPC-R: 8.0±0.4 and Fk: 9.0±0.6). The graft rejection was lower in groups treated with IPC-R (-18%), Fk (-68%) or both (-61%) compared with ALO-Tx. CONCLUSION: Remote ischemic preconditioning showed benefic effect even associate with Tacrolimus on the development and acute rejection of the fetal small bowel graft in the Isogenic and Allogenic transplants.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of ischemic preconditioning on mortality, inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress after intestinal ischemia and reperfusion. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were allocated according to the period of ischemia with or without ischemic preconditioning which consist on clamping the superior mesenteric artery for 10 minutes followed by reperfusion for 10 minutes before the sustained ischemia period. Mortality was assessed in Phase 1 study, and the CINC-1, CINC-2 and MDA levels in the lungs were analyzed in Phase 2. RESULTS: Mortality was lower in the ischemic preconditioning group subjected to 90 minutes of ischemia compared to the group without ischemic preconditioning (I-90: 50% and IPC-90: 15%, p=0.018), and it was lower in the ischemic preconditioning group as a whole compared to the groups without ischemic preconditioning (IPC-14% and I=30%, p=0.006). Lower levels of MDA, CINC-1, and CINC-2 were observed in the animals that were subjected to ischemic preconditioning compared to the animals that were not (MDA: I-45=1.23 nmol/mg protein, and IPC-45=0.62 nmol/mg protein, p=0.0333; CINC-1: I-45=0.82 ng/mL and IPC-45=0.67 ng/mL, p=0.041; CINC-2: I-45=0.52 ng/mL and IPC-45=0.35 ng/mL, p=0.032). CONCLUSION: Ischemic preconditioning reduces mortality, inflammatory process and oxidative stress in rats subjected to intestinal ischemia and reperfusion.
PURPOSE: To compare the inflammatory response of three different meshes on abdominal hernia repair in an experimental model of incisional hernia.METHODS: Median fascial incision and skin synthesis was performed on 30 Wistar rats. After 21 days, abdominal hernia developed was corrected as follows: 1) No mesh; 2) Polypropylene mesh; and, 3) Ultrapro(r) mesh. After 21 days, the mesh and surrounding tissue were submitted to macroscopic (presence of adhesions, mesh retraction), microscopic analysis to identify and quantify the inflammatory and fibrotic response using a score based on a predefined scale of 0-3 degrees, evaluating infiltration of macrophages, giant cells, neutrophils and lymphocytes.RESULTS: No significant difference was seen among groups in adherences, fibrosis, giant cells, macrophages, neutrophils or lymphocytes (p>0.05). Mesh shrinkage was observed in all groups, but also no difference was observed between polypropylene and Ultrapro mesh (7.0±9.9 vs. 7.4±10.1, respectively, p=0.967). Post-operatory complications included fistula, abscess, dehiscence, serohematic collection and reherniation, but with no difference among groups (p=0.363).CONCLUSION:There is no difference between polypropylene (high-density) and Ultrapro(r) (low-density) meshes at 21 days after surgery in extraperitoneal use in rats, comparing inflammatory response, mesh shortening, adhesions or complications.
OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the outcome of abdominal wall integrity of both techniques. METHODS: a retrospective study was carried out at the Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, identifying the patients undergoing temporary abdominal closure (TAC) from January 2005 to December 2011. Data were collected through the review of clinical charts. Inclusion criteria were indication of TAC and survival to definitive abdominal closure. In the post-operative period only a group of three surgeons followed all patients and performed the reoperations. RESULTS: Twenty eightpatients were included. The difference in primary closure rates and mean time for fascial closure did not reach statistical significance (p=0.98 and p=0.23, respectively). CONCLUSION: VAC and Bogota Bag do not differ significantly regarding the outcome of abdominal wall integrity, due to the monitoring of a specific team and the adoption of progressive closure
OBJETIVO: avaliar o resultado da integridade da parede abdominal após utilização do fechamento assistido a vácuo e da bolsa de Bogotá. MÉTODOS: um estudo retrospectivo foi realizado no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (HCFMUSP), identificando os pacientes submetidos à técnica de fechamento abdominal temporário (FAT) entre janeiro de 2005 e dezembro de 2011. Os dados foram coletados por meio de revisão de prontuários. Os critérios de inclusão foram indicação de FAT e sobrevivência até o fechamento definitivo da parede abdominal. No período pós-operatório, apenas um grupo de três cirurgiões, seguiu todos os pacientes e realizou as reoperações. Além disso, independente da técnica de FAT utilizada, foi aplicada a tática de fechamento fascial progressivo durante as reoperações. RESULTADOS: Vinte e oito pacientes foram incluídos. Não houve diferença estatística nas taxas de fechamento primário e tempo médio de fechamento fascial. CONCLUSÃO: O fechamento assistido a vácuo e a bolsa de Bogotá não diferem significativamente em relação ao resultado da integridade da parede abdominal após as reoperações. Isso se deve ao acompanhamento de uma equipe específica e a adoção de técnica de fechamento fascial progressivo.
AbstractIntroduction:Pharmacological therapy is a strategy for the prevention of complications associated with ischemia and reperfusion injury that occurs after volume replacement in the treatment of hemorrhagic shock.Objective:The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of N-acetylcysteine associated with fluid resuscitation in cardiac injury in a rat hemorrhagic shock model.Methods:Mice Wister male rats were randomly and subjected to controlled hemorrhagic shock for 60 min. and then, subjected to resuscitation with Ringer lactate. In a group of six animals, 150mg/kg of N-acetylcysteine were added to fluid volume replacement. The animals were observed for 120 min and after this period, were euthanized and cardiac tissue was collected for histopathological analysis and measurement of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and pro-and anti-inflammatory interleukin.Results:Cardiac tissue of the group treated with N-acetylcysteine showed lower concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (0.20±0.05 vs. 0.27±0.05, P=0.014) and reduced histopathological damage and edema when compared to the group whose volume replacement occurred only with Ringer lactate. There was no difference in the expression of cytokines interleukin 6 (2,138.29±316.89 vs. 1,870.16±303.68, P=0.091) and interleukin 10 (1.019,83±262,50 vs. 848.60±106.5, P=0.169) between the treated groups.Conclusion:The association of N-acetylcysteine on volume replacement attenuates oxidative stress in the heart, as well myocardial damage and edema, but does not modify the expression of inflammatory cytokines.
ResumoIntrodução:A terapia farmacológica é uma estratégia de prevenção das complicações associadas à lesão de isquemia e reperfusão tecidual que ocorre após a reposição volêmica no tratamento do choque hemorrágico.Objetivo:O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a repercussão da N-acetilcisteína associada à reposição volêmica na lesão cardíaca em modelo de choque hemorrágico em ratos.Métodos:Ratos Wistar, machos, foram randomizados e submetidos ao choque hemorrágico controlado por 60 minutos e, depois, submetidos à reposição volêmica com Ringer Lactato. Em um grupo de seis animais, foram adicionados 150 mg/Kg de N-acetilcisteína ao fluido de reposição volêmica. Os animais foram observados por 120 minutos e após este período foram submetidos à eutanásia e coleta do tecido cardíaco para análise histopatológica e dosagem de substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico e interleucinas pró e anti-inflamatórias.Resultados:Foi observada menor concentração de substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (0,20±0,05 vs. 0,27±0,05, P=0,014) e menor dano histopatológico e edema no tecido cardíaco do grupo tratado com N-acetilcisteína em relação ao grupo cuja reposição volêmica ocorreu somente com Ringer Lactato. Não foi observada diferença da expressão das citocinas interleucina 6 (2.138,29±316,89 vs. 1.870,16±303,68, P=0,091) e interleucina 10 (1.019,83±262,50 vs. 848,60±106,5, P=0,169) entre os grupos tratados.Conclusão:A associação da N-acetilcisteína na reposição volêmica atenua o estresse oxidativo no coração, assim como dano e edema miocárdicos, porém, não modifica a expressão de citocinas inflamatórias.
OBJECTIVE: to present our experience with scheduled reoperations in 15 patients with intra-abdominal sepsis. METHODS: we have applied a more effective technique consisting of temporary abdominal closure with a nylon mesh sheet containing a zipper. We performed reoperations in the operating room under general anesthesia at an average interval of 84 hours. The revision consisted of debridement of necrotic material and vigorous lavage of the involved peritoneal area. The mean age of patients was 38.7 years (range, 15 to 72 years); 11 patients were male, and four were female. RESULTS: forty percent of infections were due to necrotizing pancreatitis. Sixty percent were due to perforation of the intestinal viscus secondary to inflammation, vascular occlusion or trauma. We performed a total of 48 reoperations, an average of 3.2 surgeries per patient. The mesh-zipper device was left in place for an average of 13 days. An intestinal ostomy was present adjacent to the zipper in four patients and did not present a problem for patient management. Mortality was 26.6%. No fistulas resulted from this technique. When intra-abdominal disease was under control, the mesh-zipper device was removed, and the fascia was closed in all patients. In three patients, the wound was closed primarily, and in 12 it was allowed to close by secondary intent. Two patients developed hernia; one was incisional and one was in the drain incision. CONCLUSION: the planned reoperation for manual lavage and debridement of the abdomen through a nylon mesh-zipper combination was rapid, simple, and well-tolerated. It permitted effective management of severe septic peritonitis, easy wound care and primary closure of the abdominal wall.
OBJETIVO: apresentar nossa experiência com reoperações agendadas em 15 pacientes com sepse intra-abdominal. MÉTODOS: foi empregada uma técnica mais eficaz que consiste em fechamento abdominal temporário com uma folha de malha de nylon contendo um zíper. Realizamos as reoperações no centro cirúrgico, sob anestesia geral, com um intervalo médio de 84 horas. A revisão consistiu de desbridamento de material necrosado e lavagem vigorosa da área peritoneal envolvida. A média de idade dos pacientes foi 38,7 anos; 11 pacientes eram do sexo masculino e quatro do sexo feminino. RESULTADOS: Quarenta por cento das infecções foram devido à pancreatite necrosante. Sessenta por cento foram ocasionadas por perfuração intestinal secundária à inflamação, oclusão vascular ou trauma. Foram realizadas 48 reoperações, média de 3,2 operações por paciente. O dispositivo tela-zíper foi deixado no local por uma média de 13 dias. Um estoma intestinal estava presente ao lado do zíper em quatro pacientes e não ocasionou complicação para o paciente. A mortalidade foi 26,6%. Nenhuma fístula resultou dessa técnica. Quando a doença intra-abdominal estava sob controle, o dispositivo de fecho do tipo de rede foi removido, e a fáscia foi fechada em todos os pacientes. Em três pacientes, a ferida foi fechada primariamente, em 12 permitiu-se fechar por intenção secundária. Dois pacientes desenvolveram hérnia: uma incisional e outra na incisão de drenagem. CONCLUSÃO: A nova operação prevista para lavagem manual e desbridamento do abdômen através de uma combinação de tela-zíper em nylon foi rápida, simples e bem tolerada, permitindo uma gestão eficaz da peritonite séptica grave, fácil tratamento das feridas e fechamento primário da parede abdominal.