SUMMARY Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal disease characterized by muscle weakness, atrophy, fasciculations, and decreased reflexes due to upper and lower motor neurons death. It can be present in both sexes (55-65 years), but with predominance in males. However, in female patients, ALS presents its first symptoms when they are already postmenopausal, when then the incidence ratio of the disease is practically equal between the sexes, which leads to a probable involvement of sex hormones in the development and protection against ALS. The aim of this systematic review, which used the PRISMA consensus and NOS (New Castle-Ottawa Scale) score, was to evaluate the evidence of the action of hormone therapy in women with ALS. The Medline and Cochrane databases were accessed from March 2019 to June 2019, and only full-text articles in Spanish, English, and Portuguese were included. Only four articles matched our inclusion criteria. Postmenopausal women who used exogenous estrogen did not have the same protective factor as women still under the action of endogenous estrogen in the same age group. There was also no increase in the survival of these women.
Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate the physical and chemical quality of the brown soybean preserve in function of the ascorbic acid concentration and the maceration time, and also to evaluate the chemical composition, microbiological hazard, and acceptability of the best preserve, in addition verify its technological, nutritional, functional and sensory viability. The hardness of the grain ranged between 8.6 and 23N and was significantly affected by the maceration time. The ascorbic acid concentration influenced antioxidant activity (ranged between 4.3 and 183.8 mg100g-1) and total phenolic compounds (ranged between 176.4 and 466.2 mg100g-1). The best brown soybean preserve was obtained with a maceration time of 23 min and an ascorbic acid concentration of 0.15 g100g-1 . This shows high nutritional value and essential amino acid content, absence of trypsin inhibitor and microbiological risk, and also sensory acceptance. Therefore, the brown soybean preserve is viable, and its consumption is recommended.
Abstract The objective of this study was to characterize the structural and physicochemical properties, the bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity of freeze-dried açaí pulp (FDAP). The morphology of freeze-dried açaí pulp showed a continuous matrix with a spongey aspect, and the X-ray diffractometry indicated that 96.17% of the molecular structure was in the amorphous state and 3.82% in the crystalline state. Freeze-dried açaí pulp presented an interesting chemical composition of macronutrients, which constituted mainly of lipids (49.14 g/100 g d.b.), proteins (9.19 g/100 g d.b.), total crude fiber (20.29 g/100 g d.b.) and total sugars (2.71 g/100 g d.b.). It also showed great amount of total phenolic compounds (1405.03 mg gallic acid/100 g d.b.) and anthocyanins (127 mg cyanidine-3-glucoside/100 g d.b.), allowing for functional properties allegations. There was significant increase in the water absorption and water solubility indices when the freeze-dried açaí pulp was submitted to a gradual increase in temperature, properties that are adequate for industrial use. Thus, the consumption of freeze-dried açaí pulp should be encouraged and also its use by the food industry in order to develop new food products.
Abstract The aim of this research was compare methods for pigments extraction and color determination in different tomato for processing cultivars, and choose the most promising materials for the industry. The tomatoes for processing studied were of the IT761, H9992, H9553, AP533, Advance, N901, BRSena, U2006, HY26, HY37 and HY68 cultivars. The extraction yields of lycopene and β-carotene using acetone and the mixture of ethanol, acetone and hexane (10:10:20) were determined, and the parameters of color were determined by colorimetric and digitals image methods (Cielab and Hunterlab), besides other physicochemical characteristics. The mixture of solvents is more efficient in the extraction of lycopene and β-carotene than acetone on its own. The methods of assessing the color through image presented higher levels of luminosity and chrome a* and b* than the instrumental method, given that the Hunterlab is closer to the colorimeter method, than Cielab. The analysis through digital images indicates that the procedure is promising, and it can be used as a instrument for analysing tomato colors. Considering that the level of TSS is fundamental to industrial performance, the IT761, BRSena, AP543, and H9992 cultivars stand out, moreover these cultivars have higher levels of lycopene and darker red color.
SUMMARY INTRODUCTION Although estrogen therapy is widely used against post-menopausal symptoms, it can present adverse effects, including endometrial cancer. Soy isoflavones are considered a possible alternative to estrogen therapy. However, there are still concerns whether isoflavones exert trophic effects on the uterine cervix. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the histomorphometric and immunohistochemical alterations in the uterine cervix of ovariectomized rats treated with soy isoflavones (Iso). METHODS Fifteen adult Wistar rats were ovariectomized (Ovx) and divided into three groups: Group I (Ovx), administered with vehicle solution; Group II (OVX-Iso), administered with concentrated extract of Iso (150 mg/kg) by gavage; and Group III (OVX-E2), treated with 17β-estradiol (10 µg/kg), subcutaneously. After 30 days of treatments, the uterine cervix was fixed in 10% formaldehyde and processed for paraffin-embedding. Sections were stained with Hematoxylin and eosin for morphological and morphometric studies or subjected to immunohistochemistry for detections of Ki-67 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (Vegf-A). The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis (p ≤ 0.05). RESULTS We noted an atrophic uterine cervix in GI, whereas it was more voluminous in GII and even more voluminous in GIII. The thickness of the cervical mucosa was significantly higher in GIII, as compared to GI and GII. The cell proliferation (Ki-67) was significantly elevated in the estradiol and isoflavones treated groups, whereas Vegf-A immunoexpression was significantly higher in GIII, as compared to groups GII and GI. CONCLUSIONS Soy isoflavones cause less trophic and proliferative effects in the uterine cervix of rats as compared to estrogen.
RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO Embora a terapia estrogênica seja amplamente utilizada contra sintomas pós-menopausais, ela pode apresentar efeitos adversos, incluindo câncer de mama e endometrial. Assim, as isoflavonas da soja são consideradas uma alternativa possível à terapia estrogênica. No entanto, ainda há controvérsias se estes compostos exercem efeitos tróficos significativos no colo do útero. OBJETIVOS Avaliar as alterações histomorfométricas e imuno-histoquímicas no colo do útero de ratas ovariectomizadas tratadas com isoflavonas da soja (iso). MÉTODOS Quinze ratas Wistar adultas foram ovariectomizadas bilateralmente (Ovx) e separadas em três grupos: Grupo I (Ovx) - veículo (propilenoglicol); Grupo II (Ovx-Iso) - receberam extrato concentrado de Iso (150 mg/kg) e Grupo III (Ovx-E2) - tratado com 17β-estradiol (10 µg/kg); as soluções foram administradas via gavagem por 30 dias consecutivos. Posteriormente, os colos uterinos foram retirados, fixados em formaldeído a 10% tamponado e processados para inclusão em parafina. Cortes (4 µm) foram coradas com hematoxilina e eosina para estudo morfológico e morfométricos, enquanto outros foram submetidos à imuno-histoquímica para detecção de Ki-67 e do fator de crescimento endotelial vascular-A (Vegf-A). Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise estatística (p≤0,05). RESULTADOS Observamos a presença de colo uterino atrófico no GI (Ovx), sendo este mais volumoso no GII (Ovx+Iso) e ainda mais volumoso no GIII (Ovx+E2). A espessura da mucosa cervical foi significativamente maior no GIII (Ovx-E2), em comparação ao GI (Ovx) e ao GII (Ovx-Iso). A proliferação celular (Ki-67) foi significativamente mais elevada nos grupos tratados com estradiol e isoflavonas, enquanto a imunoexpressão de Vegf-A foi significativamente maior no GIII (Ovx-E2), em comparação ao GII (Ovx-Iso) e ao GI (Ovx-E2). CONCLUSÕES As isoflavonas da soja causam menos efeitos tróficos e proliferativos no colo do útero de ratas em comparação ao estrogênio.
ABSTRACT Brazilian cheese bread (CB) rolls are gluten-free bread made from sour cassava starch. They are soft in the center and have crispy crust, reminding of the extruded structure. Although native waxy maize starch (WMS) has higher technologic quality, it has not been used in CB rolls; therefore, this study aimed to investigate the use of WMS and the backslopping fermentation process plus sun drying in WMS to replace sour cassava starch (0, 25%, 75%, and 100%) and the effects on dough development, color, and textural properties. Data were analyzed using variance and Tukey test (p ≤ 0.05%), and the results were set against a commercial product from cassava starch. The better formulation was characterized by proximal composition, sensorial acceptance, and willingness to buy, and data were presented as means and standard deviation. The different statistic parameters included color to redness coordinate, baking expansion capacity, specific volume, hardness, fracturability, and chewiness. The best formulation had 100% of sundried WMS and was microbiologically safe. The proximal composition had lower values than that obtained from the Brazilian Food Database. The product was considered satisfactory as it had a score of more than 7.79 to texture, appearance, and flavor with higher willingness to buy (92.5%). The backslopping fermentation plus SWMS was considered a potential replacement for sour cassava starch.
RESUMO Pão de queijo (PQ) é um produto sem glúten, produzido a partir de amido de mandioca azedo. Apresenta casca crocante e miolo macio, lembrando uma estrutura extrudada. O amido de milho ceroso (AMC) é conhecido pela sua qualidade tecnológica e não foram encontrados estudos para sua aplicação na produção de PQ. Neste sentido o presente trabalho objetivou investigar o uso de AMC e de AMC fermentado, utilizando polvilho azedo de mandioca como inóculo, e seco ao sol (AMCF) na substituição do amido convencional (0, 25, 75, e 100%) e seus efeitos no desenvolvimento da massa, cor e propriedades de textura. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA e teste de Tukey (p≤0.05%) e os resultados foram comparados com um produto comercial A melhor formulação foi caracterizada quanto sua composição proximal, aceitação sensorial e pela intenção de compra e os dados são apresentados pelas suas médias e desvio-padrão. Os parâmetros que diferiram estatisticamente foram as coordenadas de cor para o vermelho, capacidade de expansão, volume específico. Com 100% de AMCF a melhor formulação foi microbiologicamente segura. A composição proximal apresentou valores menores quando comparados com os valores da Tabela Brasileira de Composição de Alimentos. O produto pode ser considerado com boa aceitação, já que apresentou notas maiores que 7,79 para textura, aparência, sabor e intenção de compra. O AMCF pode ser considerado como um bom substituto para o polvilho azedo de mandioca.
Abstract The effect of the anatomical structure of tomato skin may be significant for quality determination at the harvest point, but the definitions of cells that constitute the skin of fleshy fruits, such as tomato, are still unclear, providing contradictory descriptions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidermal tissue of different genetic materials of tomato processing (IT761, U2006, TC2736, CVR2909 and F3060) and maturation stage, in order to compare and choose genetic materials with morphological characteristics of the epidermis region more appropriate for the bulk transport. Micrographs were used for cell measurements using the Image J software. Cuticle undergoes thickening during fruit growth, and reduction in full maturation. Genetic materials presenting fruits with thicker cuticle at the harvest stage (CVR2909, F3060 and IT761) were more advantageous due to their mechanical resistance. Cuticle deposition ends before full fruit maturation, resulting in a decrease in the amount of cutin per surface unit, consequently decreasing cuticle thickness in the ripe fruit. The characteristics observed in the tomato fruit mesocarp clearly showed the disruption of the cell wall during the fourth maturation stage related to loss of fruit firmness. Among the new genetic materials, F3060 has a greater potential to become cultivated for industrialization due to its morphological characteristics, such as elevated cuticle thickness and high values for width, height, perimeter and area of epidermal cells in full maturation stage, which make it suitable for bulk transport.
Abstract In order to help the choice and recommendation of cultivars with the greater mechanical resistance of fruits, this research aimed to determine the mechanical resistance and biometric and physicochemical characteristics of tomato cultivars for industrial processing. Eleven processing tomato cultivar fruits cultivar were used (IT761, H9992, H9553, AP533, Advance, N901, BR-Sena, U2006, HY26, HY37 and HY68). Tomatoes firmness was influenced by several factors, including thickness, epidermal cell shape, and internal structures. In general terms, fruits more resistant to compression and puncture presented low longitudinal diameter (55-59 mm), cross-sectional diameter (42-45 mm), scar diameter (5.8-6.6 mm), pericarp thickness (5.9-7.7 mm), fresh weight (56 - 70 g), volume (61-77 cm3) and ash (0.34-0.40 g 100 g-1), and high moisture content (96.2-96.6 g 100 g-1), and pectin content (0.39-0.47 mg 100 g-1). The fruits showing a better mechanical resistance come from AP533, IT761, HY37 and H9992 cultivars, which should be recommended for cultivation in order to reduce losses during harvest, bulk handling and transportation.
Abstract The aim of this work was to evaluate the microbiological and physicochemical qualities of sour cassava starch and cassava bagasse produced during cassava agroindustry in order to evaluate their potential for use in food. All samples were kindly provided by family farmers producers from the region of Cará, in town of Bela Vista de Goiás, Brazil. All of sour cassava starch samples showed microbial counts within the values established by the current legislation. Drying process of raw cassava bagasse to produce the bran was sufficient to reduce the mold and yeast counts (from 1.9x103 to 3.5x101 CFU g -1) and of total coliform counts (from 2.1x103 to 2.4x102 MPN 100 mL-1), and also eliminated the contamination by coliforms at 45 ° C and Bacillus cereus. Carbohydrate contents of all sour cassava starch samples ranged from 99.64 to 99.75 g 100g-1. These results indicated that the sour cassava starch presented high degree of purity, and extraction process was efficient. Bran sample showed high carbohydrate (96.94 g 100g-1) and dietary fiber (22.58 g 100g-1) contents. High dietary fiber content suggests the use of bran as raw material to increase the availability of fiber in food products, increasing its nutritional quality.
Abstract Food-type soybean, considered a functional and nutritious food, becomes an new alternative food in human nutrition, and its preserve is an option to the consumer market. The present study aims to verify the effect of maceration time of the grains and the acetic acid concentration in brine on the physical and chemical characteristics of a edible soybean preserves, and to evaluate the proximal composition, microbiological risk and sensory acceptance of the selected preserve. The methodology used was the response surface and the central composite rotational design. The presence of acetic acid in the brine was prejudicial to the quality of the edible soybean preserve - BRSMG 790A cultivar. The soybean preserve with the best characteristics was obtained with a maceration time of 100 minutes and without the addition of acetic acid. The product was microbiological safe, showed sensory acceptance and high nutritional value (15.5 g 100 g-1 of protein and 7.0 g 100 g-1 of lipid), free of trypsin inhibitor. The essential amino acids represented 17.2% of those in the dry grain, more than 50% the standard values proposed for the essential amino acids for children and adults. The selected preserve maintained 31.25% of the antioxidant activity of the grains and could be used as a viable technological option.
Abstract The aim of this study was to characterize the corn gluten feed and corn gluten meal originated from waxy maize wet milling industry, in relation to its microbiological risk and physical, chemical and functional properties. The wet residues showed microbiological standards for human consumption. Maize gluten meal was characterized by having high protein content (32 g 100 g-1), lipids (16 g 100 g-1) and carbohydrates (45 g 100 g -1), whereas the maize gluten feed contains high content of dietary fiber (44 g 100 g -1). The maize gluten feed and maize gluten meal have high potential for application as food ingredient. The high dietary fiber, suggests its use as a promising ingredient to increase the availability of fibers, thereby increasing attractiveness and nutritional quality of food. Furthermore, the use of this coproduct of waxy starch may be an alternative to traditional fibers used in the production of bakery products already before with claimed functional and health properties.
Abstract The market for ready-to-drink fruit nectars is one of the fastest growing ones, because fruits provide beneficial effects for health maintenance and disease prevention, mainly due to the presence of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity. Amongst these, jambolan stands out, but is still little explored. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the influence of different proportions of jambolan pulp, sucrose and water on the physicochemical characteristics and sensory acceptance of jambolan nectars, besides determining the content of some bioactive compounds and the antioxidant capacity of the selected nectar, with a view to adding value to the fruit. Six jambolan nectar formulations were established using a Simplex design. The ingredients significantly affected the Chroma (9.33-11.05), Hue angle (359.36-359.48), apparent viscosity (6.9-64.8 cP) and pH (3.84-3.93) of the jambolan nectars. The formulation with 55 g of jambolan pulp, 5 g of sucrose and 40 g of water per 100 g of nectar presented higher levels of anthocyanins when compared to tropical acai juice and camu-camu nectar. It is feasible to produce jambolan nectar with desirable physicochemical and sensory characteristics, rich in bioactive compounds, thus increasing the possibilities of applying this fruit as an ingredient in the food industry.