Observations from a ground based multi-wavelength radiometer (MWR) in the Kullu valley of the North Western Himalayan region from April 2007 to March 2008 show that the spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) and the Ångström turbidity coefficient (β) are high during the monsoon season, slightly less in summer, low in winter and lowest during the autumn for clear, hazy and partially clear days while the Ångström wavelength exponent (α) has an opposite trend. Average annual values of the AOD at 500 nm are 0.25 ± 0.01, 0.46 ± 0.02 and 0.28 ± 0.02, for clear, hazy and partially clear sky days, respectively. The corresponding values of the β are 0.13 ± 0.01, 0.22 ± 0.01 and 0.15 ± 0.01 and those of α are 1.09 ± 0.04, 1.18 ± 0.03 and 0.89 ± 0.05. The α is slightly high, but the β is considerably higher on hazy days than on clear days, indicating that mountain haze is rich in coarse particles. There is a good agreement between MWR and satellite-based AOD values from MODIS, with annual correlation coefficients of 0.89, 0.70 and 0.81 for clear, hazy and partially clear days, respectively. The correlation of the AOD at 500 nm and the β coefficient with temperature, wind speed and humidity is significantly positive while that of the α exponent is negative for most of days suggesting high AOD and turbidity but low concentration of fine particles on hot, humid and windy days and vice versa. Also, the correlation of AOD at 500 nm and β coefficient with wind direction is mostly negative while that of the α exponent is positive, indicating that AOD and turbidity decrease but the concentration of fine particles increases as wind direction veers to become more southwardly at our site. Thus, winds heading toward our site from the Indo-Gangetic plains brought air rich in coarse particles while winds from more southward direction or from the Thar-Desert advected mostly fine particles during the period analyzed here.
Las observaciones de un radiómetro de longitud de onda múltiple (MWR, por sus siglas en inglés) ubicado en tierra en el valle Kullu en la región noroccidental del Himalaya, de abril de 2007 a marzo de 2008, muestran que la profundidad óptica espectral del aerosol (AOD, por sus siglas en inglés) y el coeficiente Ångström de turbidez (β) son altos durante la estación del monzón, ligeramente menores en el verano, bajos en invierno y los más bajos en otoño, para días claros, neblinosos y parcialmente claros, mientras que el exponente Ångström de longitud de onda (α) tiene una tendencia opuesta. Los valores promedio anuales de AOD a 5000 nm son 0.25 ± 0.01, 0.46 ± 0.02 y 0.28 ± 0.02, para días de cielos claros, nebulosos y parcialmente claros, respectivamente. Los valores correspondientes para β son 0.13 ± 0.01, 0.22 ± 0.01 y 0.15 ± 0.01 y los de α 1.09 ± 0.04, 1.18 ± 0.03 y 0.89 ± 0.05. La α es ligeramente mayor pero la β es considerablemente más alta en los días nebulosos que en los claros, indicando que la niebla montañosa es rica en partículas gruesas. Hay una buena concordancia entre los valores MWR y los AOD satelitales de MODIS, con coeficientes de correlación anuales de 0.89, 0.70 y 0.81 para días claros, nebulosos y parcialmente claros, respectivamente. La correlación entre AOD a 500 nm y el coeficiente β con la temperatura, velocidad del viento y humedad es significativamente positivo, mientras que el del exponente α es negativo para la mayoría de los días, lo que sugiere alto AOD y turbidez pero baja concentración de partículas finas en días calientes, húmedos y con viento y viceversa. Asimismo, la correlación entre AOD a 500 nm y el coeficiente β con la dirección del viento es la mayoría de las veces negativa, mientras que la del exponente α es positiva, indicando que AOD y la turbidez disminuyen pero la concentración de partículas finas aumenta al cambiar la dirección del viento más hacia el sur de nuestro sitio. Así, durante el periodo analizado, los vientos que se dirigen hacia nuestro sitio desde las planicies indogangéticas son ricos en partículas gruesas, mientras que los vientos de la dirección sur o del desierto Thar transportan principalmente partículas finas.
To evaluate commercial Lionex TB together with four antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MPT-64, MT10.3, 16 kDa and 38 kDa) for IgG and IgA cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) detection in the diagnosis of tuberculosis meningitis (TBM) with CSF negative acid-fast bacilli staining, 19 cases of TBM, 64 cases of other infectious meningoencephalitis and 73 cases of other neurological disorders were tested by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. IgA-MPT-64 and IgG Lionex showed the highest sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive value and negative predictive value (63.2%, 47.4%; 95%, 93.7%; 40%, 98% and 28.4%, 97.1%, respectively). However, while grey zone was 12.7% and 6%, respectively, lowering sensitivity but maintains high specificity (> 95%). High protein concentration in CSF was associated with antibody positivity CSF/HIV+ which did not influence the sensitivity of both tests. To our knowledge, this is the first description of IgA-MPT-64 and IgG Lionex antibodies in CSF-TBM and, although there is good specificity, adjustments are needed based on antigen composition to enhance sensitivity.
Observational studies on the humoural immune responses of the Warao indigenous people from Delta Amacuro, an isolated area, were compared with urban residents of the Venezuelan capital. Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific reactivities (IgM, IgE, sIgA, IgG and IgG subclasses) were measured by ELISA using PPD and 38-kDa M. tuberculosis antigens. A total of 294 individuals were studied, 162 Warao (indigenous people) and 132 Creole (non-indigenous people). The patient group consisted of 87 Warao patients and 58 Creole patients, while the control group consisted of 75 Warao controls and 74 Creole controls. Combinations among the isotypes studied were performed. The findings showed that for the Warao people, sensitivity to the combination including anti-PPD IgG and IgE was 92.0%, while for the Creole people, sensitivity to the combination including anti-PPD IgG but more so anti-PPD IgG1 and IgG2 was 90.0%. Simple tests were able to show higher specificities, which were population-specific; specificities were anti-PPD IgG3, 100.0% and anti-PPD IgM, 97.4% for the Warao and Creole peoples, respectively. In conclusion, while simple tests reached high specificity, the multi-isotype tests improved sensitivity; the latter shows this approach may be useful in diagnostic testing.
The diagnostic test characteristics of detecting free and complex-dissociated IgG to three recombinant antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (38-kDa, Ag16 and Ag85B), singly and in combination, were evaluated in sera from 161 tuberculous patients [smear-positive pulmonary TB (50), smear-negative pulmonary TB (pTBsm-) (60) and extrapulmonary TB (51)) and 214 control patients (mycobacteriosis (14), mycoses(14), leprosy(4), other underlying diseases (82) and healthy people (100)]. The individual antigens ranged from 25% to 42% in sensitivity and from 93% to 96% in specificity, while considering free IgG response. Addition of complex-dissociated antibodies against each individual antigen improved the sensitivity up to 55%. The number and levels of specific antibodies varied greatly from individual to individual. Combination of individual results for free and complex-dissociated IgG to 38-kDa, Ag16 and Ag85B offered 76% sensitivity and 83% specificity. When the three antigens were placed in the same well, the sensitivity was lower than that expected on the basis of single antigen (63%) but with a good specificity (95%), even in the group of mycobacteriosis or mycoses. The highest contribution of complex-dissociated IgG results to free IgG results was seen for the diagnosis of pTBsm- patients. In conclusion, although neither single recombinant antigen was reactive with most sera from TB patients even after the measurement of both free and complex-dissociated antibodies, the use of multi-antigen cocktails improved the diagnostic utility of the ELISA assay, allowing the identification of almost 70% of pTBsm-, with a high level of specificity; the use of additional, well selected antigens should lead to the detection of almost all patients with TB.
Human pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a worldwide public health problem. In resistant individuals, control of the infection mainly requires development of a Th1 cell immune response with production of cytokines, of which interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)plays an important role. Several antigens from Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex has been described for use in vaccine development or for diagnostic purposes, however little evaluation has been done in endemic area for TB. The proliferative and IFN-gamma human T cell immune responses, to four recombinant proteins (MBP-3, NarL, MT-10.3, 16 kDa) and PPD, of 38 Brazilian TB patients (6 untreated and 32 treated) and 67 controls (38 positive and 29 negative tuberculin skin test - TST) were compared. The highest reactivity mean rate was obtained with PPD followed by 16 kDa in TB patients. While most of the patients (87%) and controls (> 64%) respond to the PPD, 16kDa was more specifically recognized (> 21%) although less sensitive (54%). When TB patients were divided according to treatment status, opposite to PPD, higher average level of IFN-gamma was induced by 16kDa in untreated (505 pg/ml) compared to treated TB patients and TST+ (269.8 pg/ml x 221.6pg/ml, respectively), although the difference was not significant. These data show that in contrast with the other recombinant proteins, the stimulatory potency of 16kDa to induce proliferative and INF-gamma response was more effective and is more recognized by active TB untreated patients, eliciting in control individuals a more selective immune response than PPD.