Abstract INTRODUCTION: Genetic polymorphisms define the cytokine production leading to susceptibility or resistance to diseases. We studied the cytokine polymorphism in the development of tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL). METHODS: Genotyping of TNF-α, TGF-β1, IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-10 were performed by polymerase chain reaction assay. RESULTS: G and C alleles of TGF- β1 (codon 25) were the most common in controls and patients, respectively. G/G was the most frequent genotype in controls, and G/C and C/C in patients. CONCLUSIONS: G/G genotype of codon 25 in TGF-β1 appeared to confer resistance, and G/C and C/C genotypes, susceptibility to TL in this population.
American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is an endemic disease caused by Leishmania parasites. The ACL diagnosis is commonly accomplished by parasitological and immunological methods. The objective of this work was to evaluate the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for ACL laboratorial diagnosis. IgG antibodies against Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis promastigotes were researched. For the method standardization 240 sera were used: 72 from patients with positive parasitological diagnosis, 38 from normal individuals and 113 from individuals with other pathologies. The sensibility was 93% and the specificity was 70%. Regarding diagnosis, EIA showed 97% positivity in patients with ACL and 97% negativity in patients with other cutaneous lesions. The EIA presented a good performance when used for diagnosis, thus, it may become an important tool for it and for further ACL epidemiological studies in endemic areas.
The results from sandfly collections in 10 municipalities in Paraná State, Brazil are reported. The captures were done using Falcão traps in homes, domestic animal shelters and forested areas, from 1999 to 2002. A total of 13,653 sandflies were collected from 10 species of the genera Brumptomyia, Expapillata, Evandromyia, Migonemyia, Pintomyia, Nyssomyia and Psathyromyia. The species Nyssomyia neivai was predominant in five municipalities. N. whitmani predominated in the other five, in greater numbers than for N. neivai in the first five municipalities. High frequencies of sand flies were found in forests, homes, pigpens and henhouses. Investigations on the participation of domestic animals and phlebotomine fauna in the epidemiology of tegumentary leishmaniasis should be routine in health surveillance, especially where this disease is endemic.
São relatados os resultados de coletas de flebotomíneos feitas em localidades de 10 municípios do Estado do Paraná, com armadilhas de Falcão em domicílios, abrigos de animais domésticos e nas matas, de 1999 a 2002. Coletaram-se 13.653 flebotomíneos de 10 espécies dos gêneros Brumptomyia, Expapillata, Evandromyia, Migonemyia, Pintomyia, Nyssomyia, Psathyromyia. A espécie Nyssomyia neivai predominou em cinco municípios, e N. whitmani nos demais, a qual foi numericamente superior à primeira. Verificou-se maior freqüência de flebotomíneos nas matas, residências, pocilgas e galinheiros. As investigações sobre a participação de animais domésticos e da fauna de flebotomíneos na epidemiologia da leishmaniose tegumentar deveriam fazer parte da rotina dos serviços de saúde, especialmente nas áreas onde a doença é endêmica.