RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar os efeitos do estresse oxidativo sobre a sinalização da insulina em tecido cardíaco de camundongos obesos. Métodos Utilizaram-se 30 camundongos Swiss subdivididos igualmente (n=10) em três grupos: Grupo Controle, Grupo Obeso e Grupo Obeso Tratado com N-acetilcisteína. Após estabelecidas a obesidade e a resistência à insulina, os camundongos obesos foram tratados diariamente, durante 15 dias, via gavagem oral, com N-acetilcisteína na dose de 50mg/kg. Resultados Observaram-se maiores níveis de glicose sanguínea, conteúdos de nitrito e carbonil, e menores níveis proteicos de glutationa peroxidase e proteína quinase B fosforilada no Grupo Obeso quando comparado a seu respectivo controle. Por outro lado, o tratamento com N-acetilcisteína se mostrou eficiente em diminuir os níveis glicêmicos, os conteúdos de nitrito e carbonil, e aumentar significativamente os níveis proteicos de glutationa peroxidase e proteína quinase B fosforilada, quando comparados ao Grupo Obeso. Conclusão Obesidade e/ou dieta hiperlipídica levam a estresse oxidativo e à resistência à insulina no tecido cardíaco de camundongos obesos, e o uso da N-acetilcisteína como estratégia metodológica e terapêutica sugeriu haver relação entre ambos.
ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the effects of oxidative stress on insulin signaling in cardiac tissue of obese mice. Methods Thirty Swiss mice were equally divided (n=10) into three groups: Control Group, Obese Group, and Obese Group Treated with N-acetylcysteine. After obesity and insulin resistance were established, the obese mice were treated with N-acetylcysteine at a dose of 50mg/kg daily for 15 days via oral gavage. Results Higher blood glucose levels and nitrite and carbonyl contents, and lower protein levels of glutathione peroxidase and phosphorylated protein kinase B were observed in the obese group when compared with their respective control. On the other hand, treatment with N-acetylcysteine was effective in reducing blood glucose levels and nitrite and carbonyl contents, and significantly increased protein levels of glutathione peroxidase and phosphorylated protein kinase B compared to the Obese Group. Conclusion Obesity and/or a high-lipid diet may result in oxidative stress and insulin resistance in the heart tissue of obese mice, and the use of N-acetylcysteine as a methodological and therapeutic strategy suggested there is a relation between them.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aquatic exercise on mental health, functional autonomy and oxidative stress parameters in depressed elderly individuals. METHODS: Initially, ninety-two elderly individuals were included in the study and were allocated into the depression group (n=16) and nondepression group (n=14). Both groups engaged in the aquatic exercise program for 12 weeks, including two weekly sessions (45 min/session) at a low intensity (between 50% and 60% of maximal heart rate or Borg scale scores of 13 to 14) throughout the intervention. All outcomes were evaluated at baseline and 12 weeks later. RESULTS: The patients were 63.5±8.8 years old. The following scores were decreased after training in the depressed group: depression (53%), anxiety (48%), and Timed Up & Go (33%). The following scores increased: Berg Balance Scale (9%) and flexibility (44%). Regarding the blood-based parameters, there were decreases in protein carbonylation (46%) and nitric oxide (60%) and increases in glutathione (170%) and superoxide dismutase (160%) in the depression group (p<0.005). CONCLUSIONS: The aquatic exercise program reduces depression and anxiety, improves functional autonomy and decreases oxidative stress in depressed elderly individuals.