Light is an important environmental variable for the regulation and control of broiler behavior. Some light sources may also add heat to the rearing environment, and indirectly affect the heat exchange between the birds and the environment. This study aimed at investigation the surface temperature and behavioral response of broilers reared in an environment with monochromatic light emitted diode (LED). Broilers were reared inside commercial dark houses under two treatments: fluorescent or LED light sources. Bird surface temperature and behavior was monitoredfrom the first day of grow-out. The houses were virtually divided in four quadrants, and the variables were monitored in the geometric center of each quadrant. Surface temperature results were mapped, behavioral responses were divided as normal and abnormal, and their interaction with light source was tested. Broiler surface temperature in both houses presented lack of homogeneity, independently of the light source. No effect of the light source on any of the evaluated behavior was found in the present study. The long life and energy savings obtained with the LED light source suggest its use in broiler production.
Animal welfare related issues have been intensely discussed in recent years as a consequence of changes in public attitudes and regulatory reforms that are taking place in many countries. A combination of public opinion pressure and trade policy has driven requirements for regulation and the World Trade Organization (WTO) assigned the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) to develop guidelines that could be used as international standards. However, trade disputes related to animal welfare are not likely to be resolved under the auspices of OIE, and access to international markets may be questioned in a way that does not necessarily reflect attitudes to animal production in emerging economies, such as those in South America. This paper presents an overall view of basic welfare issues and points out specific items related to the present scenario of norms and regulations that are being implemented in South America, where the growing poultry industry is an important economic activity.
Well being of animals had been historically a public concern, since the beginning of human kind history. As world's population grows there is a need for food including meat. In the last decades there has been a great improvement in poultry production based on the careful control of several aspects, among which nutrition and management (environment, health and rearing systems). Nowadays, the search for good welfare conditions is a global tendency in animal production; however issues surrounding farm animal welfare or well-being, such as definitions, measurements, interpretation, and perception, continue to be controversial. It is known that the result of a broiler not adequately housed is a direct loss in production which leads towards a thought that health, welfare and productivity are intimately connected. In the other hand hints are found in the observation of behavioral responses as well as vocalization, which may provide more precise assessment to welfare. This has been possible due to the use of information technology applied to the field of ethology as well as the multidisciplinary view of the problem. This text provides a review on broiler's welfare issues since its definition to several way of trying to assess it adequately.