Euphorbia conspicua latex was fractionated into triterpenic and irritant fractions I and II. The triterpenic fraction afforded 15 known compounds and a new triterpene, 3β-(E)-cinnamoyleuphorbol. 20-O-Acetyl-3-O-angeloylingenol was isolated from irritant fraction II. The compounds euphol, 3β-acetoxyeupha-8,24-diene, 3β-(E)-cinnamoyleuphorbol and 20-O-Acetyl-3-O-angeloylingenol were evaluated for molluscicidal activity. 20-O-Acetyl-3-O-angeloylingenol presented LC100 value of 1 mg mL-1, equivalent to that of the standard molluscicide niclosamide. Compounds euphol, 3β-acetoxyeupha-8,24-diene and 3β-(E)-cinnamoyleuphorbol showed low molluscicidal activity. Mutagenic assays (Ames test with strains TA 98, 100 and 102) were performed with 3β-(E)-cinnamoyleuphorbol in the presence and absence of metabolic activation (S9 mix). In V79 cells, the cytotoxicity of 3β-(E)-cinnamoyleuphorbol was evaluated using the MTT assay and the genotoxicity was assessed using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) with or without S9 mix. Mutagenic or genotoxic activity was not detected, and no significant cytotoxicity was observed for 3β-(E)-cinnamoyleuphorbol at lower doses.
O latex de Euphorbia conspicua foi fracionado nas frações triterpênica e irritantes I e II. Da fração triterpênica foram isolados 15 compostos já conhecidos e um novo triterpeno denominado 3β-(E)-cinamoileuforbol. A fração irritante II forneceu o 20-O-acetil-3-O-angeloil-ingenol. A atividade moluscicida dos compostos eufol, 3b-acetoxieufa-8,24-dieno, 3β-(E)-cinamoileuforbol e 20-O-acetil-3-O-angeloil-ingenol foi avaliada. O 20-O-acetil-3-O-angeloil-ingenol apresentou uma LC100 de 1 mg mL-1, a qual foi equivalente ao moluscicida padrão niclosamida. Os compostos eufol, 3b-acetoxieufa-8,24-dieno e 3β-(E)-cinamoileuforbol apresentaram uma fraca atividade moluscicida. O 3β-(E)-cinamoileuforbol foi submetido a testes de mutagenicidade (teste de Ames com TA 98, 100 e 102) na presença e ausência de ativação metabólica (mistura S9). Foram também realizados os ensaios de citotoxicidade (teste MTT) e genotoxicidade (teste dos micronúcleos, CBMN) com e sem mistura S9, em células V79 de Hamster chinês. O 3β-(E)-cinamoileuforbol revelou-se fracamente citotóxico e sem atividade mutagênica ou genotóxica.
Fumonisins are mycotoxins occurring worldwide, mainly in maize and maize-based food products, which could affect animal and human health. This paper reviews analytical methodologies for the determination of these fungal toxins in foods. It includes extraction, cleanup, derivatization procedures, detection, quantification, and confirmation procedures. Initial attempts at gas chromatographic methods and thin layer chromatography were supplanted by liquid chromatographic methods, mainly performed with fluorometric detection, or mass spectrometry detection, enabling the analysis of polar and thermolabile chemicals without chemical derivatization, which results in lower limits of detection. Alternative methods, such as enzyme linked immunosorbent assay or zone capillary zone electrophoresis, are also described.