Abstract The effect of the food hydrocolloids Guar gum, Locust bean gum (LBG) and Gelatin, as well as their mixtures (even carrageenan was used in all formulations – 0.035%), was studied on the rheological characteristics of ice cream formulations. A frequency sweep test, at low temperature (-8 °C), was performed to evaluate the elastic (G’) and viscous (G”) modulus. The ice cream produced using Gelatin and blend of Gelatin and LBG (0.09 and 0.18%) presented higher values of G’, which is an indicative of the presence of ice crystals and greater rigidity. The thermo-oscillatory rheometry was used to correlate the rheological properties and the characteristic of the ice creams (creaminess, sensory, melting). A temperature sweep test, from -10 to 5 °C was performed to evaluate changes in the structures of the products and their relationship with the sensory properties. For all formulations tested, it was observed, from -10 °C to -1 °C, a large decline in the elastic and viscous modulus due to the loss of interactions between the ice crystals, associated with their melting. After melting, the parameter G”, indicative of the creaminess of ice cream during consumption, showed a slight advantage to the ice creams produced with Guar gum alone and its blend with LBG.
This research aimed to compare growth and fruit yield of strawberry plants grown in a closed substrate soilless system under three fertigation methods. The experiment was carried out at the Fitotecnia Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria, between May 14th and November 16th, 2007, in a bifactorial 3 x 2 randomised split plot experimental design and three replications. The main plots were the three fertigation methods and the split plots were the clones LBD 15.1 and LBG 168.1. The growing bed was the organic substrate Plantmax PXT®. The control (T1) was a complete nutrient solution. In T2, absorbed quantities of P, K, Ca and Mg were estimated and added in the substrate before planting. Nitrogen was supplied by fertigation during the cropping period. In T3, quantities of nutrients estimated for T2 were split in fortnight doses and delivered by fertigation using the same fertilizers employed in the complete nutrient solution. Fruit number and yield during the cropping period and vegetative dry matter at the end of the experiment were determined. Early and total fruit yield were lower in T2. It was concluded that for both clones, the fertigation using a complete nutrient solution can reach similar fruit yield as well as the supplying nutrients in fortnight doses, with a reduction in the consumption of fertilizers.
O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento e a produtividade de frutas de dois clones de morangueiro em sistema fechado sem solo e com três métodos de fertirrigação. O experimento foi conduzido no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, entre 14 de maio e 16 de novembro de 2007, em um bifatorial 3 x 2 com delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, parcelas subdivididas e três repetições. As parcelas principais foram constituídas por três métodos de fertirrigação e as subparcelas pelos clones LBD 15.1 e LBG 168.1 em leito de cultivo com substrato orgânico Plantmax PXT®. A testemunha (T1) consistiu em uma solução nutritiva completa. Em T2, as quantidades estimadas de macronutrientes P, K, Ca e Mg foram incorporados ao substrato antes do plantio e o N foi fornecido através da fertirrigação durante o período de crescimento e produção. Em T3, as quantidades de nutrientes estimadas em T2 foram fornecidas quinzenalmente por fertirrigação de acordo com o crescimento da cultura, sendo empregados os mesmos fertilizantes solúveis utilizados na elaboração de soluções nutritivas. Foram determinados o número e a produtividade de frutas durante todo o período e a produção de massa seca vegetativa ao final do experimento. A produtividade precoce e total e o número de frutas foram menores em T2. Concluiu-se que, para os clones avaliados, o método de fertirrigação empregando solução nutritiva completa atinge produtividade elevada e similar ao método com fornecimento quinzenal dos nutrientes extraídos pelas plantas, porém com menor consumo de fertilizantes.
Reservoir competence for the Newcastle Disease virus (NDV) was evaluated in sparrows (Passer domesticus, Linnaeus 1758) captured on a commercial poultry farm and a chicken hatchery in the State of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. A total number of 103 birds collected from a poultry farm (24/103) and a chicken hatchery (79/103) were examined. Hemagglutination inhibition tests, isolation, and viral characterization were performed in all samples collected from each bird. Titers ranging from 1:2 to 1:64 were detectable in 10.68% of sparrows, but positive serology and viral isolation were obtained only from sparrows captured at the hatchery. Hemagglutination activity was inhibited by anti-avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1) serum, and this sample showed an intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICOI) of 0.21, which is similar to the B1 stock vaccine (0.20) used for vaccination in those farms. Therefore, it was concluded that the sparrows were infected by stock vaccine virus, and that these birds could be a reservoir for NDV. However, additional studies involving sequencing of the virus genome of stock vaccine must be carried out.