Ourinhos is situated in one of the major sugar cane producing regions in the State of São Paulo, where the manual harvesting is generally preceded by burning the foliage, resulting in large quantities of aerosols being emitted into the atmosphere. A one- month pilot study was executed during August 2010, to characterize the effects of those emissions on the atmosphere, considering the local circulation and the consequences for the region. The plumes were tracked by IPMet´s two S-band Doppler radars, also deploying a large range of meteorological, physical and chemistry instrumentation: a mobile Lidar with Raman channel to observe elevated layers and the type of aerosols, a medium-sized Sodar, as well as 6 Automatic Weather Stations spread through town. Various gases and particulates were also sampled, providing the atmospheric chemistry data base and thus documenting the impact on the region. This paper highlights a case study on 26 August, when a plume was tracked by TITAN Radar Software from the start of the fire, moving southwards at 14-17 km.h-1 with the winds at about 3,5 km above ground level, until it reached Ourinhos 2h15min later, where it was observed by the Raman Lidar and also detected by the aerosol and gas samplers. The high aerosol load of the atmosphere was confirmed by hourly mean values of AOD varying between 0,265 and 0,288 until 07:00 LT, after which they increased to 0,433 by 09:00 LT, as well as hourly mean backscatter profiles. Hourly values of the Lidar Ratio identified the aerosols as biomass burning products, also confirmed through the analysis of gas and aerosol samples simultaneously collected at the Lidar site.
BACKGROUND: Deflazacort, a new corticosteroid is claimed to induce less collateral effects than other corticoids. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of this drug on the healing of colonic anastomosis. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 75 Wistar rats were randomized to receive daily by gavage, one of the following treatments: control group (N=24) - 1 ml of saline; deflazacort (N=25) - 1 ml of this drug containing 0.15mg/ml (0,1 mg/kg/day), and dexamethasone (N=26) - 1 ml containing 0.03 mg/ml of this drug (0.5 mg/kg/day). After 6 days of treatment, the animals underwent laparotomy followed by section and immediate colonic anastomoses in a point 2 cm above peritoneal reflexion. Treatment in each group was carried out until the animals were killed on the third of a six postoperative day. At necroscopy, signs of peritonitis and anastomotic dehiscence were registered. Anastomotic site was tested for tensile rupture and biopsies containing all layers were sent for hydroxyproline and protein measurements. RESULTS: There was no difference in the peritonitis and anastomotic dehiscence rates among the groups. Bowel rupture pressure was similar at day 3 but significantly higher in controls (180 [150-230] mmHg) than in deflazacort (150 [120-180] mmHg) and dexamethasone groups (140 [100-180] mmHg) at day 6. No difference occurred in the hydroxyproline concentration. Protein content was higher in dexamethasone group than in controls on the third postoperative day. CONCLUSIONS: Corticosteroids may impair colonic anastomotic resistance and deflazacort may have similar deleterious effects of dexamethasone in anastomotic healing.
OBJETIVO: O deflazacort é um novo corticóide com os mesmos efeitos antiinflamatórios dos demais, porém com menos efeitos colaterais. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos do deflazacort na cicatrização de anastomoses colônicas. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: 75 ratos Wistar foram randomizados em três grupos para receberem os seguintes tratamentos por gavagem: grupo controle (N=24)= solução fisiológica; grupo deflazacort (N=25)= 0,1 mg/Kg/dia dessa droga e, grupo dexametasona (N=26)= 0,5 mg/Kg/dia substância. Após seis dias de tratamento, os animais foram submetidos à secção colônica, seguida de anastomose primária em um ponto situado a 2 cm acima da reflexão peritoneal. O tratamento com as soluções foi mantido até o sacrifício, que ocorreu no 3º ou no 6º dia de PO. Observou-se na necrópsia sinais de peritonite e deiscência de sutura. Realizou-se o teste de pressão de ruptura das anastomoses e dosou-se nessa região a concentração de hidroxiprolina e proteinas. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença em relação à ocorrência de deiscência e peritonite. A pressão de ruptura foi semelhante no 3º dia. No 6º dia, ela foi maior (p <0.05) no grupo controle (180 [150-230] mmHg) que nos grupos deflazacort (150 [120-180] mmHg) e dexametasona (140 [100-180] mmHg). Não ocorreu diferença entre os grupos na dosagem de hidroxiprolina. A dosagem de protéinas foi maior no grupo dexametasona que nos controles no 3º PO. CONCLUSÕES: O uso de corticóides determina queda na resistência da anastomose colônica. O deflazacort apresenta os mesmos efeitos deletérios da dexametasona na cicatrização de anastomoses intestinais.