A new silicon-aluminum-zirconium ternary oxide (SiO2/Al2O3/ZrO2) was prepared by the sol-gel method followed by one-step washing with absolute ethanol or two-step washing with absolute ethanol followed by ultra-pure water. Both ternary oxides presented high surface area (over 340 m2 g-1). The binding energy values for Zr3d and Al2p levels showed the insertion of Zr and Al atoms in silica matrix, confirming the dispersion surface of these elements as shown by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF) data. A weight loss around 40 wt.% was found for both samples submitted to thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Crystallographic data showed the presence of monoclinic and tetragonal ZrO2 phases in different proportions according to the calcination temperature. Regarding the acid-base properties, temperature-programmed desorption of CO2 (CO2-TPD) profiles suggested that washing with water reduced the overall basicity of the samples and removed the strongest basic sites. However, according to temperature-programmed desorption of NH3 (NH3-TPD) profiles, washing significantly increased the amount of weak acid sites, in agreement with pyridine adsorption data. Brønsted acid sites (BAS) are ever dominant but washing with ethanol followed by water reduced the number of Lewis acid sites (LAS).
Resumo Fundamento: A adequação dos hábitos alimentares faz parte das recomendações pós-infarto agudo do miocárdio com supradesnivelamento do segmento ST (IAMcSST); contudo, tem sido pouco explorada a qualidade da orientação nutricional intra-hospitalar nos diferentes serviços de saúde. Objetivo: Avaliar a qualidade da orientação nutricional intra-hospitalar entre pacientes com IAMcSST nas redes de saúde pública e privada em Sergipe. Métodos: Estudo transversal, com dados do Registro Via Crucis para o Tratamento do Infarto do Miocárdio (VICTIM), realizado de abril a novembro de 2017 com indivíduos com idade ≥ 18 anos, diagnosticados com IAMcSST em um hospital público e três privados. Analisaram-se a ocorrência de orientação nutricional e a sua qualidade com base nas diretrizes atuais e por meio de aplicação de questionários, sendo adotado nível de significância de 0,05. Resultados: Foram avaliados 188 voluntários, sendo 80,3% do serviço público. Dentre os entrevistados, 57,6% da rede pública e 70,3% da privada receberam orientação nutricional intra-hospitalar (p = 0,191). O registro dessa prática em prontuário foi menor no serviço público (2,6% versus 37,8%; p < 0,001). Verificou-se o predomínio das orientações restritivas, sobretudo de sal e gorduras, 52,3% e 70,3% no público e no privado, respectivamente (p = 0,064). Quanto à inserção de alimentos cardioprotetores, pacientes da rede privada foram mais beneficiados, principalmente quanto ao consumo de frutas e verduras/legumes (48,6% versus 13,2%, p < 0,001). Entre aqueles que receberam orientação, o conhecimento nutricional foi maior no sistema privado (68,2% versus 26,3%, p < 0,001). Conclusão: A orientação nutricional intra-hospitalar para o IAMcSST em Sergipe apresenta baixa qualidade em ambos os serviços de saúde, sobretudo no público.
Abstract Background: Having appropriate dietary habits is part of the recommendations after ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI), however, the quality of intra-hospital nutritional counselling in the different health services has been minimally explored. Objective: To evaluate the quality of intra-hospital nutritional counselling among patients with STEMI in the public and private health systems in Sergipe. Methods: A cross-sectional, with data from the Via Crucis for the Treatment of Myocardial Infarction (VICTIM) Register, conducted from April to November of 2017, with individuals aged ≥ 18 years diagnosed with STEMI, in one public health service hospital and three private hospitals. The occurrence and quality of nutritional counselling were analyzed based on current guidelines and the administration of questionnaires. A significance level of 0.05 was adopted. Results: A total of 188 patients were analyzed; 80.3% were from the public health service facility. Among the interviewees, 57.6% of the public health service, and 70.3% of the private hospital patients received intra-hospital nutritional counselling (p = 0.191). The documentation of this practice, in medical records, was lower in the public service (2.6% vs. 37.8%, p < 0.001). A predominance of restrictive orientations was found in the public and private sectors, mainly regarding salt and fat, 52.3% and 70.3% respectively (p = 0.064). Patients from the private service were more counselling to introduce of cardioprotective foods, mainly fruit, vegetable/legume consumption (48.6% vs. 13.2%, p < 0.001). Among those who received counselling, nutritional knowledge was higher in the private sector (68.2% vs. 26.3%, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The intra-hospital nutritional counselling provided to patients with STEMI, in Sergipe, still presents poor quality in both services, especially in the public health system.
Boron doped diamond films (BDD) are the most studied electrocatalytic materials and their efficiency for removing organic compounds is attributed to their ability to produce a large amount of hydroxyl radicals by the electrolysis of water. However, some organic compounds are easy to degrade than others, as well as they also interact with BDD surface. Thus, it is necessary to understand the chemical/electrochemical process at the molecular level. In this frame, this work aims to study the electrochemical oxidation (EO) of oxalic acid (OA) at BDD anode, understanding the reaction mechanism, formation of hydroxyl radicals, the effect of supporting electrolyte concentration, and the role of oxidants in solution taking into consideration the cyclic and linear voltammetric measurements. Voltammetric results clearly reveal that a direct electron transfer is achieved as the main mechanistic behavior suffered by OA on BDD surface before oxygen reaction. However, the concentration of sulfates in solution plays an important role in the solvation, diffusion and adsorption species at BDD surface, promoting parallel mechanisms. From the information provided by experimental measurements, the preferential mechanism on BDD surface at low or high overpotential regions was elucidated.
Abstract Meteor showers, seen at regular and frequent intervals, occur when the Earth crosses the orbit of a comet and many small dust particles enter the Earth's atmosphere. In this paper we compare the Southern Delta-Aquariids (SDA) shower recorded by the UVP1 and UVP2 meteor monitoring stations in the Southeastern of Brazil, in 2017 and 2018. These stations are affiliated with EXOSS Citizen Science meteor monitoring network. The SDA meteor shower represented the most active radiant in these two years of data recorded by these stations. 27 detections were achieved in 2017 (between July 12 and August 24) and 15 detections in 2018 (between July 18 and August 20). The meteor properties highlighted and compared throughout the present text are: duration, apparent magnitude and angular velocity. We used estimations provided by the UFOAnalyzer program, since there is no doubled captures from diverse stations far separated. This article helps to highlight the importance of the EXOSS project, aligned with the concept of citizen science, valuing the partnership between amateur astronomers and professional scientists in data collection and wide dissemination of knowledge related to the science of meteors. This work is the result of two scientific initiation projects, with an educational cooperation between the Universidade do Vale do Paraíba (UNIVAP) and the Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo campus São José dos Campos (IFSP-SJC).
Resumo Fundamento: A síndrome coronariana aguda (SCA) é responsável por elevados números de admissões e readmissões hospitalares, os quais estão associados ao aumento dos custos para o paciente e para o sistema de saúde, bem como à elevação nas taxas de mortalidade hospitalar. Objetivo: Investigar a reinternação entre pacientes com SCA e seus determinantes. Métodos: Trata-se de uma coorte retrospectiva de pacientes de ambos os sexos, adultos e idosos, diagnosticados com SCA. Foram avaliados, a partir dos registros dos hospitais locais públicos e privados de referência em cardiologia, a ocorrência de reinternação em até 1 ano após internação por SCA, o tempo entre as admissões e o uso de medicamentos no momento da reinternação. As variáveis categóricas foram associadas por meio do teste qui-quadrado, ou pelo teste exato de Fisher. Regressão logística múltipla foi utilizada para avaliar as variáveis preditoras da reinternação. Adotou-se como critério de significância estatística um valor de p < 0,05. Resultados: A ocorrência de reinternações foi de 21,46% (n = 115), e o período médio entre as internações foi de 122,74 (DP 112,14) dias. Os pacientes avaliados eram, em sua maioria, do sexo masculino (64,0%), com média de idade de 63,15 anos (DP 12,26). Sete por cento apresentaram óbito como prognóstico da reinternação, e 68,7% tiveram mais de uma reinternação em 1 ano. As causas cardiovasculares, entre elas a recorrência da SCA, foram as mais prevalentes entre as reinternações hospitalares. A assistência privada e o diagnóstico de insuficiência cardíaca congestiva (ICC) foram associados a reinternação após a regressão logística múltipla. Conclusão: Conclui-se que a SCA foi a principal causa de reinternação, sendo mais prevalente entre os usuários da rede suplementar de saúde. As reinternações associaram-se ao diagnóstico prévio de ICC e ao tipo de assitência à saúde.
Abstract Background: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is responsible for high rates of hospital admission and readmission, which are associated with increased costs for the patient and the health system, and increased in-hospital mortality rates. Objective: To evaluate readmission in patients with ACS and its determinants. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of adult and elderly patients with ACS, readmitted to public and private referral cardiology hospitals within one year after the first hospitalization for ACS. The occurrence of readmissions, the time elapsed from the first to the second admission, and the use of medications at admission were collected from the medical records. Associations between categorical variables were evaluated by the chi-square test or the Fisher's exact test. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors for readmissions. A p < 0.05 was set as statistically significant. Results: Readmission rate was 21.5% (n = 115) and mean time between admissions was 122.7 ± 112.1 days. The patients were mostly men (64.0%), mean age of 63.15 ± 12.3 years. Among readmitted patients, 7% had a prognosis of "death", and 68.7% were readmitted more than once within a one-year period. The main reasons of readmission were cardiovascular diseases including ACS. Private health care and the diagnosis of congestive heart failure were associated with multiple logistic regression. Conclusion: ACS was the main cause of readmission, with higher prevalence among users of supplemental health care. Readmissions were associated with previous diagnosis of congestive heart failure and the type of health care provided.
RESUMO O tabagismo é o maior responsável pelas doenças respiratórias (DR). Os efeitos nocivos do tabaco sobre o aparelho respiratório se iniciam ainda intraútero e influenciam as respostas imunológicas ao longo da infância e vida adulta. Os tabagistas com DR possuem peculiaridades que podem dificultar a cessação tabágica, tais como maior grau de dependência e de abstinência de nicotina; níveis mais elevados de monóxido de carbono exalado; motivação e autoeficácia baixas; maior preocupação com ganho ponderal; e elevada prevalência de ansiedade e depressão. Além disso, requerem tratamento mais intensivo e prolongado. É necessário esclarecer sempre o paciente sobre o fato de que parar de fumar será a única medida que irá reduzir a progressão das DR e melhorar sua qualidade de vida, independentemente do tempo e da gravidade da doença. Os médicos devem sempre oferecer o tratamento de cessação tabágica. O tratamento ambulatorial ou hospitalar deve ser multidisciplinar, baseado em intervenções comportamentais e farmacoterapia, sendo eficaz e custo-efetivo, dobrando as chances de sucesso.
ABSTRACT Smoking is the leading cause of respiratory disease (RD). The harmful effects of smoking on the respiratory system begin in utero and influence immune responses throughout childhood and adult life. In comparison with “healthy” smokers, smokers with RD have peculiarities that can impede smoking cessation, such as a higher level of nicotine dependence; nicotine withdrawal; higher levels of exhaled carbon monoxide; low motivation and low self-efficacy; greater concern about weight gain; and a high prevalence of anxiety and depression. In addition, they require more intensive, prolonged treatment. It is always necessary to educate such individuals about the fact that quitting smoking is the only measure that will reduce the progression of RD and improve their quality of life, regardless of the duration and severity of the disease. Physicians should always offer smoking cessation treatment. Outpatient or inpatient smoking cessation treatment should be multidisciplinary, based on behavioral interventions and pharmacotherapy. It will thus be more effective and cost-effective, doubling the chances of success.
ABSTRACT Sexually transmitted infections are mainly caused by viruses and bacteria. They are transmitted trough sexual intercourse, without a condom, with an infected individual. The anus, vagina, and mouth may become involved. This study aimed to present six clinical cases with the diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections, but in which different treatment approaches were required. This demonstrates the dynamic and unique character of the disease in each individual. That is, the behavior of sexually transmitted infections will vary not only according to its causative microorganism (virus or bacteria), but also according to the characteristics of the combination of etiologic agent and host.
RESUMO As infecções sexualmente transmissíveis são causadas, principalmente, por vírus e bactérias. Por meio do contato sexual, sem preservativo, com um indivíduo que esteja infectado. O ânus, a vagina e a boca podem se tornar órgãos acometidos. O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar 06 casos clínicos com o diagnóstico de infecções sexualmente transmissíveis, mas que para serem tratados foram necessárias diferentes abordagens. Isso demonstra o caráter dinâmico e singular da doença em cada indivíduo. Ou seja, o comportamento das infecções sexualmente transmissíveis vai variar não somente conforme o seu microrganismo causador (vírus × bactéria), mas também de acordo com o conjunto (agente etiológico + hospedeiro).
ABSTRACT. Maize breeding programs conduct multi-environment trials every year to assess the performance of new cultivars in pre-releasing tests. The data are combined across sites and seasons to perform a joint analysis in order to obtain information that will help breeders to select the best cultivars for different environments. Beyond this, it is essential to understand the different factors that can hamper the selection and genetic progress (i.e., genetic variability, selection intensity and genotype-by-environment interactions). In this study, the genetic progress (GP) was estimated and the adaptability and stability of 81 maize genotypes were evaluated in a series of trials for the value of cultivation and use (VCU) between the 2010/11 and 2014/15 growing seasons. The genotypes were composed of open-pollinated varieties, topcross hybrids, intervarietal hybrids, and single, double and three-way cross hybrids and were assessed in 117 environments in the central region of Brazil, from which 22 presented environmental stresses. For grain yield, an annual GP of 331.5 kg ha-1 was observed, thus showing efficiency in the selection of superior cultivars. Additionally, it was observed that some low-cost seed cultivars showed yield potential, adaptability and stability estimates that were compatible with commercial hybrids, thus making them quite attractive for cultivation in environments with or without abiotic stresses.
RESUMEN Se presenta un estudio experimental para producir Ultra High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (UHFPRC) incluyendo residuos industriales en la mezcla y determinar la resistencia a la compresión promedio. El estudio incluye arreglos factoriales para realizar análisis de varianza usando ANOVA. Los factores controlables fueron: (i) edad de la muestra; (ii) granulometría de la escoria; (iii) diseños de mezcla; (iv) porcentajes de fibras y (iv) tipo de curado. Los mayores valores de resistencia obtenidos fueron 138.12, 132.17, y 155.29 MPa, con sustituciones parciales de cemento por residuos industriales del 35, 25 y 26% respectivamente. Los diseños de mezcla fueron fabricados aplicando un procedimiento simple, usando en la mezcla materiales como cemento, humo de sílice, escoria de alto horno, polvo de cuarzo y arena fina producidos en Brasil. También se adiciona el superplastificante diluido en agua y las fibras, las cuales se incorporan cuando la mezcla se convierte en una densa masa plástica. Los resultados demostraron que todos los factores controlables tienen influencia significativa en la variable de respuesta y que la probabilidad de que las variaciones en la resistencia sean atribuidas al error experimental es menor al 1‰.
ABSTRACT An experimental study is presented to produce Ultra High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC) including industrial waste in the mix, and determine the average compressive strength. The study includes factor arrangements to perform analysis of variance using ANOVA. The controllable factors were: (i) age of the sample; (ii) granulometry of the slag; (iii) mix designs; (iv) percentages of fibers and (iv) thermal treatment in curing. The highest resistance values obtained were 138.12, 132.17 and 155.29 MPa, with partial substitutions of cement by industrial waste of 35, 25 and 26% respectively. The mixing designs were manufactured using a simple procedure, using materials such as cement, silica fume, blast furnace slag, quartz powder and fine sand produced in Brazil. Also, the mixture includes the superplasticizer diluted in water and the fibers, which are incorporated when the mixture becomes a dense plastic mass. The results showed that all the controllable factors have significant influence on the response variable, and that the probability that the variations in resistance are attributed to the experimental error is less than 1 ‰.
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of including whole corn germ (WCG) on the performance; diet metabolizability; yields of carcass, cuts, and offal; and quality of meat of broilers. A total of 648 chicks were assigned to six treatments in a completely randomized design with six replicates, with 18 birds in each. Treatments consisted of a corn- and soybean meal-based control diet (0 g kg−1 WCG) and five test diets including WCG at the levels of 40, 80, 120, 160, and 200 g kg−1. Birds and diets were weighed at each seven days to determine feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The partial collection methodology was employed to determine the apparent metabolizable energy (AME), nitrogen-corrected AME (AMEn), and the apparent metabolizability coefficients of gross energy (AMCGE), dry matter (AMCDM), crude protein (AMCCP), and ether extract (AMCEE) of the diets. In the evaluation of meat quality, we analyzed the pH, cooking losses, shear force, water-holding capacity, color, and peroxide index of the meat. There was a difference for BWG and FCR in the total rearing period (1 to 42 days), for which optimum BWG was estimated as 2921 g/bird, with 118 g kg−1 inclusion of WCG. There was no difference for the AME, AMEn, and AMCCP of the diets, although AMCGE, AMCDM, and AMCEE declined as WCG was included. The increasing levels of WCG did not influence the yields of carcass and cuts or the meat quality. There was an increase in the yield of gizzard and proventriculus. Whole corn germ can be used at low levels in the diet of broilers without compromising their productive rates.
Abstract Objective To determine if the sesamoids migrate laterally in the feet with hallux valgus or if they only appear to move, maintaining their relationship with the other forefoot structures. Methods Anteroposterior radiographs of 80 patients (94 feet, all weight-bearing), from the period between 2015 and 2016, were evaluated. Forty-eight had a valgus hallux angle greater than 15° (hallux valgus group) and 46 presented a hallux valgus angle lower than 15° (control group). The distances from the firstmetatarsus head and the lateral sesamoid bone to the secondmetatarsus axis weremeasured. Subsequently, the coefficients of these distances were determined by the length of the second metatarsus to adjust it for different foot sizes. Results Both the absolute and the relativemeasures from the firstmetatarsus head to the second metatarsus axis were significantly different between the groups, with a positive correlationwith hallux valgus and intermetatarsal angles. However, neither the absolute nor the relative distance of the lateral sesamoid bone to the second metatarsus was different between the groups, as they did not correlate with hallux valgus or intermetatarsal angles. Conclusion Despite the medial deviation of the first metatarsus in hallux valgus, the sesamoid bone maintains its relationship with the second metatarsus in the transverse plane. This apparent lateral displacement may lead to misinterpretation of these radiographs. This fact is of paramount importance in the pre-, intra-, and postoperative period of patients with hallux valgus.
Resumo Objetivo Determinar se os sesamoides migramlateralmente nos pés comhálux valgo ou se apenas aparentam deslocar-se, mantendo sua relação com as demais estruturas do antepé. Métodos Foram avaliadas radiografias na incidência anteroposterior com carga dos pés de 80 pacientes (94 pés) entre o período de 2015 e 2016. Dessas, 48 tinham ângulo de hálux valgo maior do que 15º (grupo hálux valgo) e 46 tinham ângulo de hálux valgo menor do que 15º (grupo controle). Foram medidas as distâncias da cabeça do primeiro metatarso e do sesamoide lateral ao eixo do segundo metatarso. Posteriormente, forammedidos os coeficientes dessas distâncias pelo comprimento do segundo metatarso, a fim de se ajustarem aos diferentes tamanhos de pés. Resultados Tanto a medida absoluta quanto a medida relativa da cabeça do primeiro metatarso ao segundo metatarso foram significativamente diferentes nos dois grupos, tiveram correlação positiva com os ângulos de hálux valgo e intermetatarsal. Contudo, nem a distância absoluta nem a relativa do sesamoide lateral ao segundo metatarso foram diferentes nos dois grupos, bem como não se correlacionaram com os ângulos de hálux valgo e inter-metatarsal. Conclusão Apesar do desvio medial do primeiro metatarso no hálux valgo, o sesamoide mantém sua relação com o segundo metatarso no plano transverso. Esse aparente deslocamento lateral pode levar a interpretação equivocada dessas radiografias. Tal fato é de suma importância no pré-, peri- e pós-operatório dos pacientes com hálux valgo.
ABSTRACT Background: Hepatitis C is an important health problem. In Brazil, 1-2 million people are infected. Despite this expressive number, and the availability of very successful treatment, many patients remained undiagnosed mainly because of the asymptomatic nature of the infection. Objectives: To describe epidemiological characteristics of HCV-infected patients seen at referral centers in Brazil, the source of referral, and the time spanned to reach a reference center, in order to improve the identification of undiagnosed patients. Methods: Multicenter observational, cross-sectional study carried out in 15 centers of Brazil, between January/2016 and June/2017. Data of patients with a confirmed diagnosis (anti-HCV and HCV-RNA) were collected by interview using standard questionnaires and by review of charts. Results: Two thousand patients were included; 55.1% were male, mean age 58 ± 11 years. Only 14.9% had higher education and 84.2% received up to five monthly minimum Brazilian wages (approximately US$260.00/month). The time between diagnosis and beginning of follow-up was 22.9 months. The most common reasons for testing were check-up (33.2%) and blood donation (19%). General practitioners diagnosed most of the patients (30.1%). Fibrosis stage was mainly evaluated by liver biopsy (61.5%) and 31.3% of the patients were cirrhotic at diagnosis. Conclusions: This multicenter Brazilian study showed that the mean time to reach a referral center for treatment was almost two years. Primary care physicians diagnoses most hepatitis C cases in the country. Population campaigns and medical education should be encouraged to intensify screening of asymptomatic individuals, considering the efficiency of check-ups in identifying new patients.
Anopheles bellator is a primary malaria vector in the Atlantic Forest. Partial sequences of timeless and Clock genes were used to assess the genetic differentiation of five Brazilian populations, which showed strong population structure (e.g. high F ST values and fixed differences) in all pairwise comparisons between Bahia sample and the others from Paraná, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro states. Also, the resulting phylogenetic trees clearly grouped the sequences from Bahia in a different cluster with high bootstrap values. Among southern and southeastern populations low levels of genetic differentiation were found suggesting a general stability of the genetic structure.
ABSTRACT Swine wastewater can be used as a biofertilizer and promote significant improvements in soil physical-chemical attributes and yield. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of swine wastewater application on soil and maize yield. The experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Sciences Center of the Federal University of Piauí, in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, from August to November 2015. The experimental design used completely randomized blocks in split-plot scheme, with five doses of swine wastewater (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 m3 ha-1) in the plots and two soil depths (0.20 and 0.40 m) in the subplots, with four replications. Exchangeable contents of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and sodium, electrical conductivity, pH, sum of bases, base saturation, potential acidity and cation exchange capacity, and crop yield were evaluated. Results showed calcium, magnesium, sum of bases and cation exchange capacity increased with elevated levels of swine wastewater. Potassium and sodium contents however decreased with doses of 51.58 and 52.28 m3 ha-1, respectively. Except for potassium and potential acidity, variables showed higher values at the 0-0.20 m depth.
RESUMO A água residuária da suinocultura pode ser usada como biofertilizante e promover melhorias significativas nos atributos físico-químicos do solo e na produtividade. Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da aplicação da água residuária da suinocultura no solo e na produtividade do milho-verde. O experimento foi conduzido no Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal do Piauí, em Teresina, Piauí, no período de agosto a novembro de 2015. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos casualizados em esquema de parcela subdividida, com 4 repetições, sendo os tratamentos constituídos por cinco doses de água residuária da suinocultura (0, 25, 50, 75,100 m3 ha-1) nas parcelas e duas profundidades do solo (0,20 e 0,40 m) nas subparcelas. Foram avaliados os teores trocáveis de cálcio, magnésio, fósforo, potássio e sódio, condutividade elétrica, pH, soma de bases, saturação por base, acidez potencial e capacidade de troca de cátions, e a produtividade da cultura. Os resultados demonstraram que os teores de cálcio, magnésio, soma de base e capacidade de troca de cátions aumentaram com a elevação dos níveis de água residuária da suinocultura, no entanto os teores de potássio e sódio reduziram a partir das doses de 51,58 e 52,28 m3 ha-1, respectivamente. Com exceção do potássio e acidez potencial, as demais variáveis apresentaram maiores valores na profundidade de 0-0.20 m.