Nas últimas décadas, houve aumento significativo na incidência de doenças fúngicas. Certas doenças fúngicas provocam lesões cutâneas, sendo que no tratamento usual, geralmente administrado por via oral, o medicamento chega ao local de ação com dificuldade, em concentração muito baixa. Uma abordagem muito explorada nos últimos anos é o desenvolvimento de sistemas de administração de fármacos baseados em nanotecnologia, como as microemulsões (ME) e cristais líquidos (LC). ME e LC foram desenvolvidos com o ácido oleico ou óleo de copaíba como fase oleosa, álcool cetílico propoxilado (5 OP) e etoxilado (20 OE) como tensoativo e água. Método analítico para avaliar a incorporação de fluconazol (FLU) nos sistemas em estudo foi validado de acordo com as diretrizes da Conferência Internacional de Harmonização (ICH) e Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA). O método foi desenvolvido empregando coluna C18-RP (250 x 4,6 mm id), mantida à temperatura ambiente. A fase móvel consistiu de acetonitrila e água (50:50, v/v), executado a uma taxa de fluxo de 1,0 mL/min e com detecção ultravioleta a 210 nm. A separação cromatográfica foi obtida com o tempo de retenção de 6,3min, e mostrou-se linear no intervalo de 20-400 µg/mL (r2=0,9999). Pelo estudo de especificidade, observou-se não interferência dos excipientes. A precisão foi 100,76%. Os limites de detecção e de quantificação foram 0,057 e 0,172 µg.mL-1, respectivamente. Além disso, a validação do método demonstrou resultados satisfatórios para a precisão e robustez. O método proposto foi aplicado para a análise da incorporação do FLU em ME e cristais líquidos, contribuindo para aumentar o controle de qualidade e garantir a eficácia terapêutica.
In recent decades, there has been a significant increase in the incidence of fungal diseases. Certain fungal diseases cause cutaneous lesions and in the usual treatment, generally administred orally, the drug reaches the site of action with difficulty and its concentration is too low. An approach much explored in recent years is the development of nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems, and microemulsions (ME) and liquid crystals (LC) are promising. ME and LC were developed with oleic acid or copaiba oil as the oil phase, propoxyl (5OP) ethoxyl (20 OE) cetyl alcohol as surfactant and water. An analytical method to assess the incorporation of fluconazole (FLU) in the systems under study was validated according to guidelines of the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines and the Brazilian Food, Drug and Sanitation Agency (ANVISA). The method was conducted on a C18-RP column (250 × 4.6 mm i.d.), maintained at room temperature. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and water (50:50, v/v), run at a flow rate of 1.0mL/min and using ultraviolet detection at 210nm. The chromatographic separation was obtained with a retention time of 6.3min, and was linear in the range of 20-400 µg/mL (r2=0.9999). The specificity showed no interference of the excipients. The accuracy was 100.76%. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.057 and 0.172 µg.mL-1, respectively. Moreover, method validation demonstrated satisfactory results for precision and robustness. The proposed method was applied for the analysis of the incorporation of FLU in ME and LC, contributing to improve the quality control and to assure the therapeutic efficacy.
This paper describes total phenolics content and antioxidant activity in the ethanolic extract of leaves, bark and roots of five medicinal plants: Terminalia brasiliensis Camb., Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc., Copernicia cerifera (Miller) H.E. Moore, Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. var. acuminata Teles Freire and Qualea grandiflora Mart. The total phenolics content of the plant extracts, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, varied from 250.0 ±8,2 to 763,63 ± 13.03 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g dry EtOH extract. The antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay system. Extract of bark from T. brasiliensis, the most active, with an EC50 value of 27.59 ± 0.82 µg/mL, was comparable to rutin (EC50 = 27.80 ± 1.38) and gallic acid (EC50 = 24.27 ± 0.31), used as positive controls. The relationship between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was positive and significant for T. brasiliensis, C. macrophyllum and C. cerifera.
Phytochemical investigation of the bark of Cenostigma macrophyllum (Leguminosae-Caesapinioideae) resulted in the isolation and identification of valoneic acid dilactone, ellagic acid, lupeol, alkyl ferulate, four free sterols (cholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol and sitosterol), a mixture of sitosteryl ester derivatives of fatty acids, sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, stigmasterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The structures of the isolated compounds were identified by ¹H and 13C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature data. The mixtures of 3-beta-hydroxysterols and fatty acids were analysed by GC/MS.
This paper describes the isolation of the furanocassane-type diterpene, named vinhaticoic acid, along with beta-farnesene and spatulenol from fruit shells of D. lacunifera. Structural determinations were accomplished by chemical derivatization and spectral analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR and X-ray crystallography. The fatty portion was extracted from the fruit kernels, transesterfied and analysed by HRGC/MS. Oleic acid (75.8 ± 4.3%) was the major component. Essential oil extracted from the fruit shells of D. lacunifera was analysed by HRGC/MS and nine sesquiterpenes were identified; beta-farnesene (48.6%) and spatulenol (21.61%) were the major constituents.