Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the hyaluronic acid (HA) inflammatory reaction, fibroblasts, fibrosis and duration of effect in the dorsal region of tobacco-exposed rats. Methods: Ten Wistar rats were divided into two groups: tobacco-exposed-group (TEG;n=5) and air-control-group (CG;n=5). The TEG animals were tobacco-exposed twice a day, 30-minutes/session, during 60 days. After this period, all animals received 0.1 mL HA subcutaneous injection in the dorsal area. The volume of HA was measured immediately after HA injection and weekly using a hand-caliper in nine weeks. After this period, all the animals were euthanized, and a specimen of was collected to evaluate inflammatory cells, fibroblasts, and fibrosis by HE. Results: This study showed a higher inflammatory reaction in TEG than CG: inflammatory cell-count (CG: 1.07±0.9; TEG: 8.61±0.36, p<0.001); fibroblast count (CG: 2.92±0.17; TEG: 19.14±0.62, p<0.001), and fibrosis quantification (CG: 2.0; TEG: 3.75, p<0.001). The analysis of the HA volume in nine weeks in the dorsal region did not show a difference between groups (p=0.39). Conclusions: This study suggested that the HA injection in the TEG caused an increase in inflammatory cell count, fibroblast, and fibrosis quantification when compared to the CG. There was no difference in the duration of effect of HA between the groups.
Abstract Purpose: To introduce a nonliving microvascular training model based on vessels diameter and feasibility. Methods: We dissected ten oxen tongues, and divided the pedicles into three-thirds: proximal, middle and distal. We measured the external vessels diameter in all regions. We performed a descriptive statistical analysis. Three students (two beginner level and one intermediate level) performed this training. We evaluated the confidence, according Likert scale. Results: We dissected all oxen tongues, each tongue showed two parallel pedicles. Each pedicle was located at 1.5 - 2.0 cm from the midline. Proximal median artery and vein diameter were 3.9 ± 0.7, and 5.04 ± 1.44mm, respectively. In the middle third, the mean artery diameter was 3.3 ± 0.4mm, and the vein diameter was 3.5 ± 0.9mm. The distal third showed a mean artery diameter of 2.0 ± 0.42mm, and a vein diameter of 2.4 ± 0.82mm. The students performed ten anastomoses. This study showed a higher confidence level (CL) (p=0.03) than the pre training CL assessment. Conclusion: This study suggested a feasible non-animal model for microsurgical training process for beginners and intermediate trainees.