Abstract Objectives: The prevalence of obesity is increasing. The aim of this study was to investigate if there is endothelial dysfunction in children with normal or excess weight, and whether the metabolic profile, adipokines, and endothelial dysfunction would be more strongly associated with physical fitness or with physical activity levels. Method: Cross-sectional study involving children aged 5-12 years. The evaluation included venous occlusion plethysmography, serum levels of adiponectin, leptin and insulin, lipid profile, physical activity score (PAQ-C questionnaire), and physical fitness evaluation (Yo-Yo test). Results: A total of 62 children participated in this study. Based on the body mass index, 27 were eutrophic, 10 overweight and 25 obese. Triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, HOMA-IR, and leptin were higher in the obese and excess-weight groups compared to the eutrophic group (p < 0.01). HDL cholesterol and adiponectin levels were higher in the eutrophic group compared to the obese and excess-weight groups (p < 0.01). Flow-mediated vasodilation after hyperemia was higher in the eutrophic group in comparison to obese and excess-weight subjects (p < 0.05). There was no difference in the physical activity levels among groups measured by PAQ-C. The Yo-Yo test was significantly associated with HDL cholesterol (rho = −0.41; p = 0.01), and this association remained after adjusting for body mass index z-score (rho = 0.28; p = 0.03). Conclusion: This study showed that endothelial dysfunction is already present in obese children, suggesting a predisposition to atherosclerotic disease. Moreover, HDL cholesterol levels were correlated with physical fitness, regardless of body mass index.
Resumo: Objetivos: A prevalência da obesidade está aumentando. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar se há disfunção endotelial nas crianças com peso normal ou excesso de peso e se o perfil metabólico, as adipocinas e a disfunção endotelial seriam mais fortemente associados à aptidão física ou aos níveis de atividade física. Método: Estudo transversal que envolve crianças de 5-12 anos. A avaliação incluiu pletismografia de oclusão venosa, níveis séricos de adiponectina, leptina, insulina e lipidograma, escore de atividade física (questionário PAQ-C) e avaliação da aptidão física (teste Yo-yo). Resultados: Um total de 62 crianças participou deste estudo. Com base no índice de massa corporal, 27 eram eutróficos, 10 estavam acima do peso e 25 estavam obesos. Os níveis de triglicerídeos, colesterol LDL, HOMA-RI e leptina estavam mais elevados nas crianças obesas e com excesso de peso que o grupo de eutróficos (p < 0,01). Os níveis de colesterol HDL e adiponectina estavam mais elevados no grupo de eutróficos em comparação ao grupo de obesos e com excesso de peso (p < 0,01). A vasodilatação mediada pelo fluxo após hiperemia foi maior no grupo de eutróficos em comparação aos indivíduos obesos e com excesso de peso (p < 0,05). Não houve nenhuma diferença nos níveis de atividade física entre os grupos medidos pelo PAQ-C. O teste de ida e volta foi significativamente associado ao colesterol HDL (ró = −0,41; p = 0,01) e essa associação continuou após ajustar o escore z do índice de massa corporal (ró = 0,28; p = 0,03). Conclusão: Este estudo mostrou que a disfunção endotelial já está presente nas crianças obesas, sugeriu uma predisposição à doença aterosclerótica. Além disso, os níveis de colesterol HDL foram correlacionados à aptidão física, independentemente do índice de massa corporal.
OBJECTIVES: Estrogen has been shown to play an important protective role in non-reproductive systems, such as the cardiovascular system. Our aim was to observe gender differences in vivo with regard to the increase in macromolecular permeability and leukocyte-endothelium interaction induced by ischemia/reperfusion as well as in microvascular reactivity to vasoactive substances using the hamster cheek pouch preparation. METHODS: Thirty-six male and 36 female hamsters, 21 weeks old, were selected for this study, and their cheek pouches were prepared for intravital microscopy. An increase in the macromolecular permeability of post-capillary venules was quantified as a leakage of intravenously injected fluorescein-labeled dextran, and the leukocyte-endothelium interaction was measured as the number of fluorescent rolling leukocytes or leukocytes adherent to the venular wall, labeled with rhodamin G, during reperfusion after 30 min of local ischemia. For microvascular reactivity, the mean internal diameter of arterioles was evaluated after the topical application of different concentrations of two vasoconstrictors, phenylephrine (α1-agonist) and endothelin-1, and two vasodilators, acetylcholine (endothelial-dependent) and sodium nitroprusside (endothelial-independent). RESULTS: The increase in macromolecular permeability induced by ischemia/reperfusion was significantly lower in females compared with males [19 (17-22) leaks/cm2 vs. 124 (123-128) leaks/cm2, respectively, p<0.001), but the number of rolling or adherent leukocytes was not different between the groups. Phenylephrine-induced arteriolar constriction was significantly lower in females compared with males [77 (73-102)% vs. 64 (55-69)%, p<0.04], but there were no detectable differences in endothelin-1-dependent vasoreactivity. Additionally, arteriolar vasodilatation elicited by acetylcholine or sodium nitroprusside did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSION: The female gender could have a direct protective role in microvascular reactivity and the increase in macromolecular permeability induced by ischemia/reperfusion.