In a recent issue of Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, published in Rio de Janeiro in February 2014 (109: 87-92), Adami et al. have published a survey reporting Mansonella parasite prevalence in the Amazon Region. This report makes a useful contribution to the existing knowledge of filarial parasite distribution within the Amazon area, parasite prevalence rates in relation to age and occupation and provides observations on the possible clinical impact of Mansonella ozzardi. Their publication also provides an account of what appears to be a novel ELISA that has recently been used in the Simuliidae and Onchocerciasis Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We are concerned that the publication of this ELISA may have created an excessively positive impression of the effectiveness of the onchocerciasis recrudescence serological surveillance tools that are presently available for use in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus. In this letter we have, thus, sought to highlight some of the limitations of this ELISA and suggest how continuing insecurities concerning the detection of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus within the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus might be minimised.
We present filaria-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which is based on amplification of first internal transcribed spacer rDNA to distinguish three parasitic filarial species (Onchocerca volvulus, Mansonella ozzardiand Mansonella perstans) that can be found in the Amazon Region. Nested PCR-based identifications yielded the same results as those utilizing morphological characters. Nested PCR is highly sensitive and specific and it detects low-level infections in both humans and vectors. No cross-amplifications were observed with various other blood parasites and no false-positive results were obtained with the nested PCR. The method works efficiently with whole-blood, blood-spot and skin biopsy samples. Our method may thus be suitable for assessing the efficacy of filaria control programmes in Amazonia by recording parasite infections in both the human host and the vector. By specifically differentiating the major sympatric species of filaria, this technique could also enhance epidemiological research in the region.
Elaboramos a descrição dos adultos, pupa e larva de S. brachycladum e selecionamos um lectótipo para a espécie; discutimos sua semelhança com S. rubrithorax e apresentamos a redescrição do holotipo feminino de S. scutistriatum para distingui-la de S. rubrithorax. Discutimos a posição taxonômica de S. rubrithorax no subgênero Hemicnetha e selecionamos um neótipo para esta espécie. S. conviti, espécie próxima, foi colocada em sinonímia com S. paynei.
A complete description of the adults, pupa and larva of S. brachycladum is given and a lectotype selected for this species. The similarity between S. brachycladum and S. rubrithorax is extensively covered from S. rubrithorax. The taxonomic position of S. rubrithorax within the subgenus Hemicnetha is studied, a neotype is selected for this species and S. conviti is sunk as a synonym of S. paynei; and a lectotype is selected for S. paynei.
A morfologia dos adultos e da pupa e larva do S. argentiscutum sp. nov., um membro do grupo de espécies S. amazonicum, é comparada com a do S. amazonicum Goeldi e são discutidos da sua distribuição, biologia e importância médica. S. argentiscutum é uma das espécies antropofílicas mais importantes do grupo amazonicum porque é responsável, junto com o S. amazonicum, pela transmissão da mansonelose no Brasil.
The adult, pupal and larval morphology of S. argentiscutum sp. nov., a member of the S. amazonicum-group, is compared with S. amazonicum Goeldi and its distribution, biology and medical importance are discussed. S. argentiscutum is one the most important anthropophilic species in the S. amazonicum-group as it is responsible, together with S. amazonicum, for the transmission of Mansonella ozzardi in Brazil.