ABSTRACT: Mechanical harvesting leaves in its wake a considerable amount of straw in the field, which can be effectively utilized to improve the soil condition and sugarcane yield. However, there is no specific information as to the quantity of straw mulch required to achieve such effects and as to whether it can be used in other sectors for bioelectricity and ethanol production. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of removing different amounts of straw from the field and its impact on the yield and industrial quality of sugarcane ratoons. The experiment was carried out on Rhodic soil where six treatments were evaluated including 0 %, 25 % (5 Mg ha−1), 50 % (10 Mg ha−1), 75 % (15 Mg ha−1), 100 % (20 Mg ha−1) straw on the soil surface and burned sugarcane (where 100 % of the straw was burned). The influence on yield and industrial quality was calculated using total soluble solids, Pol (Apparent sucrose content), apparent purity, total sugars, reducing sugars and fiber. Shifting the harvesting system from burned cane to growing under straw mulch improved crop yield as well as favoring sugar contents during water deficit conditions. The straw left on the soil did not affect industrial quality in any way during the trials; however, under drought conditions, treatments with 50 and 75 % of straw resulted in a 76 % higher yield compared to burned sugarcane, and 29 % more than the 0 %, 25 % to 100 % treatments of straw mulch thus favoring higher sugar production. The removal of 50 % of the straw caused no damage to the sugarcane crop.
ABSTRACT: The berry-cluster thinning technique was evaluated at different phenological times to prevent bunch compactness of ‘Black Star’ table grape, a new somatic mutation of ‘Brasil’ grape. The trial was carried out during 2012 and 2013 seaons in a vineyard situated in Marialva, PR, Brazil. Vines were trained in an overhead trellis system and spaced at 3x4m. The randomized block design was used as a statistical model with five replications and five treatments. The following treatments were evaluated: control; brushing prior to anthesis; and berry-cluster thinning at different times, when berries were 3-6, 7-10, or 11-15mm in diameter. The prevalence of bunch compactness was evaluated considering the levels: loose, medium loose, and dense bunches. The main physico-chemical characteristics of grapes and yield were also appraised. The data obtained were submitted to ANOVA, and toTukey’s test at 5% was applied. So, thinning is a mandatory practice to avoid bunch compactness of ‘Black Star’ grapes. The technique has to be performed, preferably, by means of brushing prior to anthesis, and the failure to accomplish this practice at this time, berry-cluster thinning when berries are 11-15mm in diameter can be used.
RESUMO: O método de raleio de bagas em diferentes fases fenológicas reduz a compactação de cachos da uva fina de mesa ‘Black Star’, uma nova mutação da uva ‘Brasil’. As videiras foram conduzidas em latada em espaçamento 3x4m, e o experimento foi realizado nas safras 2012 e 2013. O delineamento experimental consistiu em blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições e cinco tratamentos: controle sem raleio; raleio com escova plástica realizado no pré-florescimento e; despenca quando as bagas apresentavam 3-6, 7-10 ou 11-15mm de diâmetro. A compacidade predominante dos cachos foi avaliada de acordo com a seguinte classificação: cachos soltos, medianamente soltos e compactos. As características físico-químicas dos cachos e a produtividade também foram avaliadas. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey a 5%. Verificou-se que o raleio de bagas é uma prática obrigatória na uva ‘Black Star’ para diminuir a compacidade dos cachos. A operação deve ser realizada, preferencialmente, com a escova plástica no pré-florescimento, e na impossibilidade de executar ou finalizar essa prática nesta fase, pode-se empregar a despenca quando as bagas apresentarem 11-15mm de diâmetro.