Abstract Background: To evaluate human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients. Methods: After exclusion, 33 female adolescent and young JIA patients (ILAR criteria) and 28 healthy controls were selected for this study. Demographic data, gynecological, sexual function, cervical cytology and histological abnormalities were evaluated. JIA clinical/laboratorial parameters and treatment were also assessed. HPV-DNA, CT-DNA and NG-DNA testing in cervical specimens were performed by Hybrid Capture 2 assays. Results: The mean current age was similar in JIA patients and controls (23.3 ± 6.24 vs. 26.1 ± 6.03 years, p = 0.09). The frequencies of sexual intercourse (76% vs. 89%, p = 0.201) and abnormal cervical cytology (24% vs. 11%, p = 0.201) were similar in JIA compared to controls. The higher frequency of HPV infection in JIA patients than controls (30% vs. 11%, p = 0.155) did not reach statistical significance. CT (0% vs. 7%, p = 0.207) and NG infections (0% vs. 4%, p = 0.459) were also alike in both groups. Further evaluation of JIA patients with abnormal and normal cervical cytology showed that the former group had a higher frequency of HPV infection (87% vs. 12%, p = 0.0002) with a low frequency of HPV vaccination (0% vs. 8%, p = 1.0). No differences were evidenced between these two JIA groups regarding demographic data, sexual function and clinical/laboratorial parameters. The frequencies of methotrexate (p =0.206) and biological agent use (p =0.238) were similar in both JIA groups. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this was the first study to assess lower genital infections in JIA patients allowing the identification of HPV as main cause of cervical dysplasia. Methotrexate and biological agents do not seem to increase risk of lower genital tract infections in JIA patients.
SUMMARY The concern about the maintenance of the human species has existed since the earliest civilizations. Progress in the diagnosis and treatment of infertility has led to the development of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) which, along with the evolution of genetics and molecular biology studies, have contributed in a concrete way to the management of infertile couples. Classic in vitro fertilization was initially developed 35 years ago for the treatment of women with tubal blockage, however, it remains inaccessible to a significant proportion of infertile couples around the world. This can be explained by the lack of specialized clinics in some countries and by the high cost of the procedures. Efforts have been employed to increase the number of treatment cycles for assisted reproduction, as for example, the creation of low-cost programs. Even today, infertility remains a problem of global proportions, affecting millions of couples. The estimate of the incidence of infertility is uncertain, mainly because of the criteria used for its definition. This article aims to review the most important aspects, succinctly, regarding the incidence, etiology, and treatment options available to infertile couples.
RESUMO A preocupação com a procriação e a manutenção da espécie humana existe desde as civilizações mais antigas. O progresso no diagnóstico e no tratamento da infertilidade teve como consequência o desenvolvimento de técnicas de reprodução assistida (TRA) que, conjuntamente com a evolução dos estudos em genética e biologia molecular, têm contribuído de maneira real no manejo dos casais inférteis. A fertilização in vitro clássica foi inicialmente desenvolvida há mais de 35 anos para o tratamento de mulheres com obstrução tubária, no entanto, essa terapêutica permanece ainda inacessível para uma considerável parte dos casais inférteis ao redor do mundo. Isso pode ser explicado pela falta de clínicas especializadas em alguns países e pelo alto custo dos procedimentos. Esforços têm sido empregados para aumentar o número de ciclos de tratamento em reprodução assistida, como, por exemplo, a criação de programas de baixo custo. Ainda nos dias atuais, a infertilidade permanece como um problema de proporções mundiais, acometendo milhões de casais. A estimativa da incidência da infertilidade é incerta, principalmente por causa dos critérios utilizados para sua definição. Este artigo tem como objetivo revisar os aspectos mais importantes, de forma sucinta, referentes a incidência, etiologia e alternativas terapêuticas disponíveis para os casais inférteis.
Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty, Poaceae, is a plant widely used in northeast Brazil in folk medicine for the treatment of various pathological conditions, including inflammatory pain. The present study evaluated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of C. zizanioides essential oil (EO) in rodents. EO was further characterized by GC/MS. The major components of EO were identified as khusimol (19.57%), E-isovalencenol (13.24%), α-vetivone (5.25%), β-vetivone (4.87%) and hydroxy-valencene (4.64%). Following intraperitoneal injection (i.p.), EO at 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly reduced the number of writhes (51.9 and 64.9%, respectively) and the number of paw licks during phase 2 (56.7 and 86.2%, respectively) of a formalin model when compared to control group animals. However, EO-treated mice were ineffective at all doses in hot-plate and rota-rod tests. The EO inhibited the carrageenan-induced leukocyte migration to the peritoneal cavity in a dose-dependent manner (34.7, 35.4, and 62.5% at doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, respectively). In the paw edema test, the EO (100 mg/kg) inhibited all three phases of the edema equally well, suggesting that the EO has a non-selective inhibitory effect on the release or actions of these mediators. Our results suggest possible antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the EO.