ABSTRACT Discocactus zehntneri subsp. petr-halfari, an endangered taxon, is represented by a single population in an anthropized area of Bahia, Brazil, where it is suffering due to extreme extractivism. Thus, information about this cactus, such as its reproductive patterns, is urgently needed to support conservation strategies. A population genetics approach was used to determine if this subspecies has a preferential pattern of reproduction. We sampled 18 individuals, both with and without connection to parental plants, from five clumps and assessed their diversity and genetic structure using five ISSR markers. The results revealed two clumps that are genetically supported by the presence of genetically equal individuals. The other three groups presented individuals that are genetically different and similar to individuals in other clumps. These findings suggest that this subspecies has sexual and clonal reproduction and that its environmental distribution might be shaped by events of dispersion. In addition, a possible hybrid origin may explain its rates of genetic diversity. Despite all these factors, this taxon is in danger and so the development of conservation strategies to preserve its population are urgently needed, including in situ and ex situ actions such as the micropropagation in vitro, living collections and cryopreservation.
ABSTRACT Hypnea pseudomusciformis was recently described from South America, and has three morphological variants: “musciformis”, “nigrescens”, and “valentiae”. Information on the biology of these variants may help to explain this species’ wide morphological variation despite the absence of genetic divergence among variants. More morphological and ecological data has accumulated on the “musciformis” variant occurring on the Brazilian coast than for the others. In this study, we described the reproductive morphology of a tropical “nigrescens” population and investigated its phenology to provide crucial biological information about this taxon, and perhaps also assist in answering questions about the systematics of H. pseudomusciformis variants. The population analyzed showed no significant fluctuations in its total biomass throughout the year. All reproductive stages were frequently recorded during this study, which contributes greatly to our knowledge of the reproductive morphology of the “nigrescens” variant. Phenological variations were correlated with environment variables, such as air and sea-surface temperatures, insolation, precipitation, and humidity. Male gametophytes were frequently present, which has never been reported for the “musciformis” variant. We showed that, despite being members of the same genetic species, the “nigrescens” and “musciformis” morphological variants exhibit remarkable differences in their ecology and biology.
The phytopathogenic fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel) Aime & Philips-Mora, causal agent of witches' broom disease of cocoa, causes countless damage to cocoa production in Brazil. Molecular studies have attempted to identify genes that play important roles in fungal survival and virulence. In this study, sequences deposited in the M. perniciosa Genome Sequencing Project database were analyzed to identify potential biological targets. For the first time, the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway in M. perniciosa was studied and the lanosterol 14α-demethylase gene (ERG11) that encodes the main enzyme of this pathway and is a target for fungicides was cloned, characterized molecularly and its phylogeny analyzed. ERG11 genomic DNA and cDNA were characterized and sequence analysis of the ERG11 protein identified highly conserved domains typical of this enzyme, such as SRS1, SRS4, EXXR and the heme-binding region (HBR). Comparison of the protein sequences and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the M. perniciosa enzyme was most closely related to that of Coprinopsis cinerea.
O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, por meio de marcadores SSR, a diversidade genética de Xylella fastidiosa no Estado da Bahia. Foram estudadas duas das principais regiões produtoras de citros no Estado, o Litoral Norte e o Recôncavo Sul. Para fins comparativos, utilizaram-se dez amostras provenientes do Estado de São Paulo. Foram empregados os seguintes iniciadores: ASSR20, OSSR9, OSSR17, CSSR4, CSSR12 e CSSR20, dos quais os quatro últimos permitiram identificar 22 loci polimórficos. As populações de X. fastidiosa presentes em citros no Estado da Bahia apresentam elevada diversidade genética, com base nos marcadores SSR, com pools gênicos distintos e agrupamento geográfico. No Litoral Norte, as populações do isolado apresentam maior diversidade genética do que as da região do Recôncavo Sul da Bahia.
The objective of this work was to evaluate, by SSR markers, the genetic diversity of Xylella fastidiosain the state of Bahia, Brazil. Two of the main citrus producing regions of the state were evaluated, Litoral Norte and Recôncavo Sul. Ten samples from the state of São Paulo, Brazil, were used for comparison. The following primers were used: ASSR20, OSSR9, OSSR17, CSSR4, CSSR12, and CSSR20, of which the last four allowed the identification of 22 polymorphic loci. The citrus populations of X. fastidiosa in the state of Bahia have high genetic diversity, based on SSR markers, with distinct gene pools and geographical grouping. In Litoral Norte, the populations of the isolate show higher genetic diversity than those in the Recôncavo Sul region of Bahia.