ABSTRACT Peritoneal carcinomatosis is the natural course of gastrointestinal, gynecologic, and primary peritoneal neoplasms. In recent years, our understanding of carcinomatosis has changed; it is no longer considered a disseminated condition, but rather a disease confined to the peritoneum. Thus, the combination of cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy has become the cornerstone of control of peritoneal metastases. Traditionally, intraperitoneal chemotherapy is delivered in the form of liquid solutions. However, a new mode of chemotherapy delivery to the abdominal cavity has arisen as an alternative to the conventional method. In Pressurized Intraperitoneal Aerosol Chemotherapy (PIPAC), the liquid solution is aerosolized into a spray, potentiating the distribution and penetration of the chemotherapeutic agent intraperitoneally. The present study aims to describe a novel form of this innovative surgical technique performed for the first time in Brazil, in a modification of the technique originally described for PIPAC: delivery through a single-port device.
RESUMO A carcinomatose peritoneal é a evolução natural das neoplasias gastrointestinais, ginecológicas e primárias do peritônio. Nos últimos anos, a carcinomatose passou a ser considerada uma doença confinada ao peritônio, e não mais uma doença disseminada. Desta forma, a associação de citorredução cirúrgica associada à quimioterapia intraperitoneal se tornou o ponto chave no controle das metástases peritoneais. Tradicionalmente, a quimioterapia intraperitoneal é aplicada utilizando soluções líquidas. Uma nova modalidade de infusão da quimioterapia na cavidade abdominal surge como uma alternativa ao método tradicional. A chamada PIPAC (Pressurized Intraperitoneal Aerosol Chemotherapy) transforma a solução terapêutica líquida em um spray aerossolizado, potencializando a distribuição e penetração da quimioterapia intraperitoneal. Este relato tem por objetivo descrever essa nova técnica cirúrgica inovadora, realizada pela primeira vez por um monoportal no Brasil, alterando a forma descrita originalmente para a aplicação da PIPAC.
Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the technical feasibility and homogeneity of drug distribution of pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) based on a novel process of intraperitoneal drug application (multidirectional aerosolization). Methods: This was an in vivo experimental study in pigs. A single-port device was manufactured at the smallest diameter possible for multidirectional aerosolization of the chemotherapeutic drug under positive intraperitoneal pressure. Four domestic pigs were used in the study, one control animal that received multidirectional microjets of 9 mL/sec for 30 min and three animals that received multidirectional aerosolization (pig 02: 9 mL/sec for 30 min; pigs 03 and 04: 3 mL/sec for 15 min). Aerosolized silver nitrate solution was applied for anatomopathological evaluation of intraperitoneal drug distribution. Results: Injection time was able to maintain the pneumoperitoneum pressure below 20 mmHg. The rate of moderate silver nitrate staining was 45.4% for pig 01, 36.3% for pig 02, 36.3% for pig 03, and 72.7% for pig 04. Conclusions: Intra-abdominal drug distribution had a broad pattern, especially in animals exposed to the drug for 30 min. Our sample of only four animals was not large enough to demonstrate an association between aerosolization and a higher silver nitrate concentration in the stained abdominal regions.