Abstract This study aimed to analyze the knowledge, perspectives, and preferences of consumers about specialty coffees and to investigate how information can influence the perception of taste and the sensory characteristics of consumers. A descriptive-analytic survey was conducted through a questionnaire in a digital format with 1005 respondents. Four trained Q-Grader tasters evaluated a sample of cherry coffee fermented. The Specialty Coffee Association developed the cupping protocol used. According to the perceived descriptors, a sensory analysis was performed with the same coffee with 101 consumers to evaluate the influence of information received before the analysis. The chocolate flavor is the most expected in coffee. However, the participants are willing to try different specialty coffees. The coffee has been considered excellent (85.15 points) by Q-Grader tasters and widely accepted by consumers. Check-all-that-Apply (CATA) test showed that consumers could be influenced by information. When the coffee has been presented without information, the consumers noticed a more caramel flavor. However, when the information has been added to the same coffee, the citric flavor was more noticeable. In conclusion, information on specialty coffees should be more widespread. Consumer's expectations can be influenced by information, which in turn can modify their sensory perception.
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of information on the acceptability of fermented yam-based ice cream, as well as its sensorial profile. For this, the acceptance and check all that apply (CATA) tests were performed in two sessions by 102 tasters. In the first session, consumers received only brief information about the ice cream preparation. Additional information about the healthy contribution of the product was provided to the consumers in the second session. In the acceptance test, significant differences between the sessions were observed (p < 0.05) for the flavor attribute. Information on health benefits contributed by a reduction of “dislike moderately” and “dislike very much” classes (mainly 50-80%), and an increase of “like slightly” and “like moderately” classes (mainly 30-50%) in the acceptability test in the second session. The first session, the ice cream was related to coconut water and acid flavors and sandy texture, while in the second session it was described as yogurt flavor and creamy texture. There was a tendency to assign more pleasant characteristics to the second session. Therefore, the ice cream acceptance and sensory profile described by consumers were affected by the provided information, especially for the male group.
ABSTRACT Whole-plant corn silage (WPCS) is a commonly used forage for feeding dairy cattle in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate on-farm ensilaging practices and the nutritional value, microbiology and fermentation profiles of WPCS from dairy farms in the south of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Silages from 54 dairy farms located in nine cities were sampled and a questionnaire was distributed for completion to describe the herd profile and ensilage practices. Herd size ranged from 8 to 1,000 lactating cows, and 52 % of the farms had fewer than 50 cows in lactation. The majority of the farms cultivated hard endosperm texture hybrids (52 %) and used pull-type forage harvesters (87 %). Double-sided plastic was the most used form of silo sealing (56 %) and 28 % used inoculants. Lactic acid bacteria count was greater than 6.01 log CFU g–1 in 60 % of the samples, and the mean populations of enterobacteria and Bacillus spp. were 4.23 and 4.09 log CFU g–1, respectively. Silo size ranged from 100 to 250 m3 in 44 % of the farms, and the silage removal rate was below 15 cm of the face/d in 41 % of cases. Silage dry matter (DM) concentration was 33 ± 3 % of fresh matter, NDF concentration was 57 ± 7 % of the DM, and in vitro NDF digestibility was 35 ± 11 % of the NDF. Silages with high DM concentrations had large particle size, affecting the nutritional value and the fermentative pattern. Improvements in ensiling practices can potentially inhibit the growth of spoilage microorganisms and raise the nutritional value of silages.
Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate the protein profiles of natural and semidry fermented Coffea arabica, either subjected to treatments with different yeast inoculation methods with starter culture or to an uninoculated control. Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCMA 0543 and Candida parapsilosis CCMA 0544 were separately inoculated into coffee by directly spraying the cherries on a terrace or in buckets, for 16 hours before sun drying. Protein quantification showed a significant difference between the protein profiles of the samples collected after natural dry fermentation. The MALDI-TOF MS analysis generated a list of 96 peaks with different mass-to-charge ratios (m/z) in the samples collected at the beginning and the end of fermentation. The highest number of peaks in the natural dry coffee was observed at the end of fermentation in the samples inoculated with S. cerevisiae CCMA 0543, in bucket, and in C. parapsilosis CCMA 0544 sprayed on the terrace. However, in the semidry processed coffee, the highest number of peaks was observed in the initial fermentation, with a decrease in the peptide peaks after fermentation. The fermentation with different microorganisms, processing types, and inoculation methods affects m/z profiles, influencing the types of proteins found in coffee.
Resumo: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o perfil proteico de café arábica (Coffea arabica) fermentado por via natural e semisseco, submetido ou a tratamentos com diferentes métodos de inoculação com culturas iniciadoras ou a um controle sem inoculação. Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCMA 0543 e Candida parapsilosis CCMA 0544 foram inoculadas separadamente no café, por pulverização direta nos frutos-cereja, em um terreiro suspenso, ou em baldes, por 16 horas antes da secagem ao sol. A quantificação de proteínas mostrou uma diferença significativa no perfil proteico das amostras colhidas, após fermentação seca natural. A análise MALDI-TOF MS gerou uma lista de 96 picos com diferentes proporções massa/carga (m/z), nas amostras colhidas no início e ao final da fermentação. O maior número de picos no café processado seco ao natural foi observado ao final da fermentação nas amostras com inoculação de S. cerevisiae CCMA 0543, no balde e nas amostras de C. parapsilosis CCMA 0544 pulverizadas no terraço. No entanto, no café processado semisseco, o maior número de picos foi observado no tempo inicial de fermentação, com diminuição dos picos dos peptídeos após a fermentação. A fermentação com diferentes microrganismos, tipos de processamento e métodos de inoculação afeta os perfis m/z e influencia os tipos de proteínas encontradas no café.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of Maldi-Tof MS biosensor in microbial assessment of Brazilian kefir grains. Maldi-Tof MS is a new methodology for the rapid diagnosis of microorganisms. A total of 358 microorganisms were isolated, 31 were yeasts and 327 were bacteria (divided into lactic and acetic bacteria). Microbial colonies were grown in Luria-Bertani agar medium and incubated at 35 °C for 18h and used in the identification of species by Maldi-Tof MS. The microbial population identified in Brazilian kefir grains was Lactobacillus paracasei, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, Acetobacter pasteurianus, and Acetobacter syzygii. This study demonstrated a rapid and accurate identification of the Brazilian kefir grains microorganisms using the Maldi-Tof MS biosensor. In conclusion, the Maldi-Tof MS technology can facilitate the microbiological control in a fermentation process using kefir grains as starter cultures.
RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o uso do biossensor de Maldi-Tof MS na avaliação microbiana de grãos de kefir. Maldi-Tof MS é uma nova metodologia para o diagnóstico rápido de micro-organismos. Um total de 358 micro-organismos foram isolados, 31 foram leveduras e 327 foram bactérias (divididas em bactérias láticas e acéticas). Colônias microbianas foram cultivadas em meio Luria-Bertani (LB) e incubadas a 35 °C por 18h e posteriormente utilizadas na identificação a nível de espécies pelo Maldi-Tof MS. A população microbiana identificada nos grãos de kefir brasileiros foi Lactobacillus paracasei, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, Acetobacter pasteurianus e Acetobacter syzygii. Este estudo demonstrou uma identificação rápida e precisa dos micro-organismos de grãos de kefir brasileiros utilizando o biossensor Maldi-Tof MS. Em conclusão, a tecnologia Maldi-Tof MS pode facilitar o controle microbiológico em um processo de fermentação usando grãos de kefir como culturas iniciadoras.
Abstract: The objective of this work was to verify the use of a laser biosensor for the microbial metabolic activity assessment of kefir vinegar. Kefir grains were inoculated in apple must and were analyzed daily using the biospeckle technique. The initial biological activity was of 14.21 pixels per absolute value of differences (AVD). The biological activity of kefir grains decreased in the early days of fermentation and increased on the fourth day to 11.51 pixels per AVD; however, on the last day, the biological activity of kefir grains decreased to 7.12 pixels (alcoholic fermentation) and to 6.77 pixels per AVD (acetic fermentation). This new biospeckle methodology facilitates the microbiological control in fermentation processes.
Resumo: O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o uso de biossensor a laser para a avaliação da atividade metabólica microbiana do vinagre de kefir. Os grãos de kefir foram inoculados em mosto de maçã e analisados diariamente pela técnica de biospeckle. A atividade biológica inicial foi de 14,21 pixels por valor absoluto das diferenças (AVD). A atividade biológica dos grãos de kefir diminuiu nos primeiros dias de fermentação e aumentou no quarto dia para 11,51 pixels por AVD; no entanto, no último dia, a atividade biológica dos grãos de kefir diminuiu para 7,12 pixels (fermentação alcoólica) e 6,77 pixels por AVD (fermentação acética). Esta nova metodologia do biospeckle facilita o controle microbiológico em processos fermentativos.
Abstract Hovenia dulcis pseudofruits have underexplored properties for food purposes, despite their pleasant sensory characteristics and therapeutic benefits. The aim of this study was the elaboration and chemical characterization of the alcoholic fermented beverage of H. dulcis, using selected strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CCMA 0200). The resulting fermented beverage presented high content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity when compared to other fruits and beverages (DPPH and ABTS assay). The alcohol content was 12.9 oGL and total sugars 3.57g/L. By the GC-MS analysis, 39 compounds were identified including metabolites with therapeutic potential such as eugenol, trans-farnesol salicylates. The flavonoid dihidromyricetin was identified and quantified (75.17 mg/L) by HPLC-DAD and UPLC-MS/MS. The results reinforce the interest on nutraceutical and functional properties of this beverage and opens perspectives for new studies that value this underexplored pseudofruit.
ABSTRACT. This study evaluated the antagonistic potential of 32 wild yeast isolates from coffee and cocoa bean fermentation. These yeasts were inoculated in co-cultivation with Aspergillus carbonarius (CCDCA 10608 and CCDCA 10408) and Aspergillus ochraceus (CCDCA 10612) isolated from grapes and coffee beans. The mycelial growth and ochratoxin A (OTA) production were evaluated, and the spores were counted after cultivation at 28°C for seven days. The yeasts presented higher inhibitory effects (53% in relation to the control) over the mycelial growth of the isolated A. ochraceus (CCDCA10612). Pichia anomala CCMA0148 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCMA0159 provided the greatest inhibition of the growth of all fungal strains. All Pichia species presented the highest inhibitory effects on the production of spores, and S. cerevisiae CCMA 0159 at concentrations of both 104 and 107 mL-1 cells inhibited the production of spores by 100%. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was effective at inhibiting OTA production by the three isolates of Aspergillus. S. cerevisiae CCMA0159 and Pichia anomala CCMA0148 showed high potential as biocontrol agents in the conditions tested.
RESUMO. Este estudo avaliou o potencial antagônico de 32 isolados de leveduras selvagens de fermentação de café e cacau. Estas leveduras foram inoculadas em co-cultivo com Aspergillus carbonarius (CCDCA 10608 e CCDCA 10408) e Aspergillus ochraceus (CCDCA 10612) isolado de uvas e grãos de café. O crescimento micelial e a produção de ocratoxina A (OTA) foram avaliados e os esporos foram contados após o cultivo a 28 ° C por sete dias. As leveduras apresentaram maiores efeitos inibitórios (53% em relação ao controle) sobre o crescimento micelial do isolado A. ochraceus (CCDCA10612). Pichia anomala CCMA0148 e Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCMA0159 proporcionaram a maior inibição do crescimento de todas as estirpes fúngicas. Todas as espécies de Pichia apresentaram os maiores efeitos inibitórios na produção de esporos e S. Cerevisiae CCMA 0159 em concentrações de 104 e 107 células mL-1 inibiram a produção de esporos em 100%. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa foi eficaz na inibição da produção de OTA pelos três isolados de Aspergillus. S. cerevisiae CCMA0159 e Pichia anomala CCMA0148 apresentaram alto potencial como agentes de biocontrole nas condições testadas.
Abstract The aim of this study was to develop a kefir apple-based vinegar and evaluate this fermentation process using new methodology with Biospeckle Laser. Brazilian kefir grains were inoculated in apple must for vinegar production. In this study, the microbial community present in kefir, and correspondent vinegar, was investigated using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization - Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technique. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Acetobacter pasteurianus and Acetobacter syzygii were the microbial species identified. S. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, A. pasteurianus and A. syzygii were found in smaller quantities at the beginning of the alcoholic fermentation, but were found throughout the alcoholic and acetic fermentation. Kefir grains were able to utilize apple must as substrate to produce ethanol, and acetic acid. Acetate, volatile alcohols and aldehydes in the vinegar-based kefir were also produced. The yield of acetic acid in the kefir vinegars was ∼79%. The acetic acid concentration was ∼41 g L-1, reaching the required standard for the Brazilian legislation accepts it as vinegar (4.0% acetic acid). Kefir vinegar showed good acceptance in the sensory analysis. The technology proposed here is novel by the application of immobilized-cell biomass (kefir grains) providing a mixed inocula and eliminating the use of centrifuge at the end of the fermentative process. This step will save energy demand and investment. This is the first study to produce apple vinegar using kefir grains.
Bacaba chicha is a beverage prepared by the indigenous Umutina people from the bacaba fruit (Oenocarpus bacaba), a purple berry that is rich in fat and carbohydrates, as well as a source of phenolic compounds. In this study, samples of bacaba chicha beverage were collected, and the microbial community was assessed using culture-dependent and -independent techniques. The nutritional composition and metabolite profiles were analyzed, and species belonging to lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts were detected. The LAB group detected by culture-dependent analysis included Enterococcus hormaechei and Leuconostoc lactis. Polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) detected additional Propionibacterium avidum, Acetobacter spp., and uncultured bacteria. Pichia caribbica and Pichia guilliermondii were detected in a culture-dependent method, and Pichia caribbica was confirmed by PCR-DGGE analysis. The pH value of the beverage was 6.2. The nutritional composition was as follows: 16.47 ± 0.73 g 100 mL-1 dry matter, 2.2 ± 0.0 g 100 mL-1 fat, 3.36 ± 0.44 g 100 mL-1 protein, and 10.87 ± 0.26 g 100 mL-1 carbohydrate. The metabolites detected were 2.69 g L-1 succinic acid, 0.9 g L-1 acetic acid, 0.49 g L-1 citric acid, 0.52 g L-1 ethanol, and 0.4 g L-1 glycerol. This is the first study to identify microbial diversity in bacaba chicha spontaneous fermentation. This study is also the starting step in the immaterial record of this Brazilian indigenous beverage prepared from bacaba fruit.
Brazil has great biodiversity, which is observed in the Cerrado biome of the tropical Brazilian savanna. The objectives of this study were to isolate and identify bacteria from Psychotria hoffmannseggiana with potential cellulase and pectinase production and with antagonistic activity against Aspergillus carbonarius, an Ochratoxin A (OTA) producer. Ripe fruit were collected in the region of Passos City in the preserved Cerrado area in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Serial dilutions were performed, and the bacteria isolated were biochemically characterized and identified by sequencing. To analyze the production of enzymes, the bacteria were cultivated in CMC and pectinase media. The better enzyme producers were optimized for production. Assays on the antagonistic activity for growth and sporulation were carried out in co-culture (bacteria and filamentous fungi). TLC was performed to verify the mycotoxin production. The predominant microbiota were Gram-negative bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. Some isolates showed potential for enzymatic and antagonistic activity, especially the isolate identified as Lysinibacillus fusiformis. This species was a better producer of cellulases (maximum activity: 103.1 mg glucose min.-1 mg-1 protein). In conclusion, the bacteria isolated from Psychotria hoffmannseggiana showed biotechnological potential for agro-industry and the environmental aspect.
O Brasil tem uma grande biodiversidade no bioma Cerrado típico de savanas tropicais. Os objetivos deste estudo foram isolar e identificar bactérias celulolíticas e pectinolíticas e com atividade antagonista contra contra Aspergillus. carbonarius produtores de ocratoxina a partir de Psychotria hoffmannseggiana. Frutos maduros de P. hoffmannseggianaforam coletadas na região da cidade de Passos em área preservada de Cerrado em Minas Gerais, Brasil. Realizou-se diluições decimais e as bactérias isoladas foram caracterizados bioquimicamente e identificadas por seqüenciamento. Para a produção de enzimas, as bactérias foram cultivadas em CMC e MP5 e MP7. Os isolados com melhor produção enzimática foram submetidos ao processo de otimização. A atividade antagonista foi realizada em co-cultura (bactérias e fungos filamentosos) e avaliou-se o crescimento e a esporulação. TLC foram realizados para verificar a produção de micotoxinas. A microbiota predominante foi Gram negativas pertencem à família Enterobacteriaceae. Alguns isolados apresentaram potencial para a atividade enzimática e antagonista, especialmente o isolado identificado como Lysinibacillus fusiformis. Esta espécie foi melhor produtora de celulases (atividade máxima 103,1 mg glicose min.-1 mg-1 de proteína). Três dos 105 isolados de bactérias estimularam a produção de micotoxinas. Conclui-se que estes isolados apresentam potencial biotecnológico para a área de agro-indústria e meio ambiente.
Lactococcus lactis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in co-culture were evaluated during sugar cane fermentantion for cachaça production. The inocula containing L. lactis UFLA CA 312 and S. cerevisiae UFLA CA 11 were used in the population of approximately 105 CFU mL-1 and 108 CFU mL-1, respectively. The sugar cane medium plus 1% of yeast extract (SCM) was efficient for growth of L. lactis UFLA CA 312 and S. cerevisiae UFLA CA 11 (letter 'b'-Tukey test). In flasks and vats fermentation the growth of UFLA CA 11 was not negatively influenced by L. lactis UFLA CA 312. However, after 19 hours of fermentation, bacterial population showed a slight decrease. Considering parameters higher alcohols and aldehydes, cachaça produced by pure culture of S. cerevisiae was similar to cachaça produced by mixed culture. Cachaça produced by mixed culture showed high values of volatile acidity (letter 'b'-Tukey test) being characterized by this parameters in the principal component analysis. High percentage of acceptance (81.10%) for the attribute aroma was observed in samples from cachaça produced by mixed culture.
Lactococcus lactis e Saccharomyces cerevisiae foram avaliados em co-cultura durante fermentação para a produção de cachaça. L. lactis UFLA CA 312 e S. cerevisiae UFLA CA 11 foram utilizados com populações de aproximadamente 105 CFU mL-1 e 108 UFC mL-1, respectivamente. O meio contendo caldo de cana de açúcar, adicionado de 1% de extrato de levedura (SCM) foi eficiente para o crescimento de L. lactis UFLA CA 312 e S. cerevisiae UFLA CA 11 (letra 'b' no teste de Tukey). Nas fermentações conduzidas em frascos e dornas o crescimento da levedura não foi influenciado negativamente pela bactéria lática. Entretanto, após 19h de fermentação, a população bacteriana apresentou pequeno decréscimo. Considerando os parâmetros alcoóis superiores e aldeídos, a cachaça produzida pela cultura pura de S. cerevisiae foi semelhante à cachaça produzida pela cultura mista. A cachaça produzida pela cultura mista apresentou elevados valores de acidez volátil (letra 'b' no teste Scott-Knott), sendo caracterizada por este parâmetro na análise de componente principal. Uma elevada porcentagem de aceitação (81,10%) para o atributo aroma foi observada para as amostras de cachaça produzidas com a cultura mista.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bacterial inoculants at two inoculation rates on chemical and biological characteristics of maize silage. The treatments consisted of two inoculating rates (5 and 6 log cfu g-1of forage) for each strain of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) identified as Lactobacillus buchneri, L. hilgardii, or L. plantarum. The maize was ensiled in experimental PVC silos. Samples were taken for the determination of the contents of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), organic acids and alcohols, for the evaluation of the populations of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, filamentous fungi, and for the determination of pH values during ensilage and after 30 or 90 days of fermentation. The doses of inoculants did not promote significant differences on the evaluated characteristics. There was effect of inoculants on acetic acid, 1.2-propanediol, LAB population, filamentous fungi, and pH value. No significant influence of the treatments with inoculants was observed in the variables DM, WSC, CP, lactic acid concentrations, or ethanol. The maximum temperature, i.e., the time to achieve the maximum temperature (TMT) and aerobic stability (AS), was not influencied by treatments. However, a decrease in maximum temperature, an increase in TMT, and improvement in the AS were observed after 90 days of fermentation. These results proved the advantage of microbial inoculation. The treatments influenced LAB populations and filamentous fungi, but no effect was observed on the yeast population. The best inoculation dose is 6 cfu g-1 of forage because it provides higher reduction of filamentous fungi in maize silage, thereby decreasing the aerobic deterioration by these microorganisms.
To investigate microbial diversity and identify spoilage bacteria in fresh pork sausages during storage, twelve industrial pork sausages of different trademarks were stored at 4 ºC for 0, 14, 28 and 42 days, 80% relative humidity and packaged in sterile plastic bags. Microbiological analysis was performed. The pH and water activity (a w) were measured. The culture-independent method performed was the Polymerase Chain Reaction - Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The culture-dependent method showed that the populations of mesophilic bacteria and Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) increased linearly over storage time. At the end of the storage time, the average population of microorganisms was detected, in general, at the level of 5 log cfu g-1. A significant (P < 0.005) increase was observed in pH and a w values at the end of the storage time. The PCR-DGGE allowed a rapid identification of dominant communities present in sausages. PCR-DGGE discriminated 15 species and seven genera of bacteria that frequently constitute the microbiota in sausage products. The most frequent spoilage bacteria identified in the sausages were Lactobacillus sakei and Brochothrix thermosphacta. The identification of dominant communities present in fresh pork sausages can help in the choice of the most effective preservation method for extending the product shelf-life.
Sixty six indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were evaluated in stressful conditions (temperature, osmolarity, sulphite and ethanol tolerance) and also ability to flocculate. Eighteen strains showed tolerant characteristics to these stressful conditions, growing at 42 ºC, in 0.04% sulphite, 1 mol L-1 NaCl and 12% ethanol. No flocculent characteristics were observed. These strains were evaluated according to their fermentative performance in sugar cane juice. The conversion factors of substrates into ethanol (Yp/s), glycerol (Yg/s) and acetic acid (Yac/s), were calculated. The highest values of Yp/s in sugar cane juice fermentation were obtained by four strains, one isolated from fruit (0.46) and the others from sugar cane (0.45, 0.44 and 0.43). These values were higher than the value obtained using traditional yeast (0.38) currently employed in the Brazilian bioethanol industry. The parameters Yg/s and Yac/s were low for all strains. The UFLA FW221 presented the higher values for parameter related to bioethanol production. Thus, it was tested in co-culture with Lactobacillus fermentum. Besides this, a 20-L vessel for five consecutive batches of fermentation was performed. This strain was genetically stable and remained viable during all batches, producing high amounts of ethanol. The UFLA FW221 isolated from fruit was suitable to produce bioethanol in sugar cane juice. Therefore, the study of the biodiversity of yeasts from different environmental can reveal strains with desired characteristics to industrial applications.