Objective: Conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate levels of anger among substance users compared to non-user controls and to analyze the possible association between anger and psychoactive substance use (PSU). Methods: The procedures of this review followed the Meta-Analyzes of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Four electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIREME, PsycINFO) were searched. Results: Twelve studies were included in the meta-analysis; 10 used the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI) anger trait subscale and two used the Buss-Perry-Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) anger subscale. The sample included 2,294 users of psychoactive substances and 2,143 non-users, all male. The mean difference in anger scale scores between users and non-users was 2.151 (95%CI 1.166-3.134, p ≤ 0.00, inconsistency index [I2] = 98.83) standard deviations. Age and abstinence duration did not moderate the difference in anger between substance users and non-users. Conclusion: Users of psychoactive substances had elevated anger scores compared to non-users, which represents a high risk of relapse. It is suggested that PSU treatment programs include intensive anger management modules, focusing on factors such as dealing with daily stressors, family conflicts, frustrations, and problems.
Objective: The aim of this study was to understand the knowledge, beliefs, barriers, and behaviors of mental health professionals about physical activity and exercise for people with mental illness. Methods: The Portuguese version of The Exercise in Mental Illness Questionnaire was used to assess knowledge, beliefs, barriers, and behaviors about exercise prescription for people with mental illness in a sample of 73 mental health professionals (68.5% women, mean age = 37.0 years) from 10 Psychosocial Care Units (Centros de Atenção Psicossocial) in Porto Alegre and Canoas, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Results: Most of respondents had received no formal training in exercise prescription. Exercise ranked fifth as the most important treatment, and most of the sample never or occasionally prescribed exercise. The most frequently reported barriers were lack of training in physical activity and exercise prescription and social stigma related to mental illness. Professionals who themselves met recommended physical activity levels found fewer barriers to prescribing physical activity and did so with greater frequency. Conclusion: Exercise is underrated and underused as a treatment. It is necessary to include physical activity and exercise training in mental health curricula. Physically active professionals are more likely to prescribe exercise and are less likely to encounter barriers to doing so. Interventions to increase physical activity levels among mental health professionals are necessary to decrease barriers to and increase the prescription of physical activity and exercise for mental health patients.
Objective: Our aim was to analyze the association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and depressive symptoms, as well as the extent to which TV viewing and physical activity moderate this association. Methods: We used cross-sectional data from the 2013 Brazilian National Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde) of 59,402 adults (33,482 women, mean age = 42.9 years, 95%CI 42.7-43.2 years). Depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), physical activity, TV viewing, and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, as well as potential confounders (chronological age, ethnicity, consumption of candy/sweets and fruit, multimorbidity, education, and employment status) were self-reported. Poisson regression models were used for association analyses. Results: The consumption of 16 or more glasses/week of sugar-sweetened beverages was associated with higher levels of severe depressive symptoms among women compared to no consumption (prevalence ratio [PR] 1.71 [95%CI 1.38-2.11]). Consistent interactions were observed between 1-5 glasses and TV viewing (PR 2.09 [95%CI 1.06-4.12]) and between 11-15 glasses and TV viewing (PR 2.90 [95%CI 1.29-6.50]) among men compared to no consumption, given that the co-occurrence of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and elevated TV viewing was associated with higher odds of severe depressive symptoms. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption did not interact with physical activity, only presenting an independent association. Conclusion: Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was independently associated with severe depressive symptoms among women and interacted with TV viewing, but not with physical activity among men.
Objective: The field of food addiction has attracted growing research attention. The modified Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0 (mYFAS 2.0) is a screening tool based on DSM-5 criteria for substance use disorders. However, there is no validated instrument to assess food addiction. Methods: The mYFAS 2.0 has been transculturally adapted to Brazilian Portuguese. The data for this study was obtained through an anonymous web-based research platform: participants provided sociodemographic data and answered Brazilian versions of the the mYFAS 2.0 and the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11). Analysis included an assessment of the Brazilian mYFAS 2.0’s internal consistency reliability, factor structure, and convergent validity in relation to BIS-11 scores. Results: Overall, 7,639 participants were included (71.3% females; age: 27.2±7.9 years). The Brazilian mYFAS 2.0 had adequate internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.89). A single factor solution yielded the best goodness-of-fit parameters for both the continuous and categorical version of the mYFAS 2.0 in confirmatory factor analysis. In addition, mYFAS 2.0 correlated with BIS-11 total scores (Spearman’s rho = 0.26, p < 0.001) and subscores. Conclusion: The Brazilian mYFAS 2.0 demonstrated adequate psychometric properties in our sample; however, future studies should further evaluate its discriminant validity.
Objective: To evaluate the antidepressant effects of exercise in older adults, using randomized controlled trial (RCT) data. Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis of exercise in older adults, addressing limitations of previous works. RCTs of exercise interventions in older people with depression (≥ 60 years) comparing exercise vs. control were eligible. A random-effects meta-analysis calculating the standardized mean difference (SMD) (95% confidence interval [95%CI]), meta-regressions, and trim, fill, and fail-safe number analyses were conducted. Results: Eight RCTs were included, representing 138 participants in exercise arms and 129 controls. Exercise had a large and significant effect on depression (SMD = -0.90 [95%CI -0.29 to -1.51]), with a fail-safe number of 71 studies. Significant effects were found for 1) mixed aerobic and anaerobic interventions, 2) at moderate intensity, 3) that were group-based, 4) that utilized mixed supervised and unsupervised formats, and 5) in people without other clinical comorbidities. Conclusion: Adjusting for publication bias increased the beneficial effects of exercise in three subgroup analysis, suggesting that previous meta-analyses have underestimated the benefits of exercise due to publication bias. We advocate that exercise be considered as a routine component of the management of depression in older adults.