ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus infection is one of the main causes of chronic liver disease, with high death rates. The aim here was to analyze case outcomes, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and spatial distribution among patients diagnosed with hepatitis C in the city of Santa Cruz do Sul (RS), Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study on 200 cases of hepatitis C in Santa Cruz do Sul that were notified between 2002 and 2015. METHODS: Secondary data including sociodemographic and clinical variables and type of outcome (death, follow-up, abandonment or clinical cure) were gathered. The spatial distribution analysis on hepatitis C virus cases according to outcome was based on information regarding residential address. RESULTS: 58.5% of the patients were 41 years of age and over, 67% were males and 92.5% had the chronic form of the disease. The most frequent transmission route was illicit drug injection (29%); 15.1% of the patients presented coinfection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Regarding outcomes, 31% achieved clinical cure, 10% died and 20% abandoned follow-up. The cases studied were mainly located in regions of the city characterized by lower socioeconomic status, with high frequency of places used for drug trafficking. CONCLUSION: The population consisted of adults aged 41 years and over, mostly with chronic hepatitis C. The most common transmission routes were illicit drug injection and blood transfusions. There were high rates of HIV coinfection and abandonment of disease monitoring and predominance of cases in neighborhoods with low socioeconomic status.
Abstract Background Obesity can be associated with diseases such as diabetes, arterial hypertension and dyslipidemia. Bariatric surgery is one of the most effective treatments available, reducing both weight and comorbidities. Objective To evaluate the metabolic and pharmacotherapeutic profile of obese patients after bariatric surgery. Methods This is a retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study conducted at a hospital located in the city of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, based on analysis of the medical records for 70 patients who underwent bariatric surgery covering periods spanning from 2 months prior to more than 6 months after their bariatric surgery. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS 17.0®. Results Initial arterial blood pressure was 130/85 mmHg, 6 months after surgery it was 120/80 mmHg (p < 0.01). The metabolic profile 2 months before surgery was as follows: HDL was 34 mg/dL, total cholesterol was 195.07 ± 40.17 mg/dL, LDL was 118.22 ± 41.28 mg/dL, triglycerides were 141.09 ± 43.39 mg/dL, and fasting glycemia was 90 mg/dL. The same figures 6 months after surgery were 43 mg/dL, 133.67 ± 28.14 mg/dL, 65.53 ± 24.3 mg/dL, 104.41 ± 29.6 mg/dL, and 77 mg/dL, respectively (p < 0.01). Use of medications 2 months before surgery was as follows: 41% were on antihypertensives, 39% on hypolipidemics, 10% on oral hypoglycemics, and 97% were on nutritional supplements. These percentages 6 months after surgery had changed to 21%, 19%, 9% and 99%, respectively. Conclusions This study illustrates that bariatric surgery for obese patients with comorbidities was successful, demonstrating improvements in their metabolic profile and reductions in use of medications used to treat comorbidities.
Resumo Contexto A obesidade pode estar relacionada a doenças como diabetes, hipertensão arterial e dislipidemia. A cirurgia bariátrica é um dos tratamentos mais eficazes, levando à diminuição de peso e comorbidades. Objetivo Avaliar o perfil metabólico e farmacoterapêutico de pacientes obesos após cirurgia bariátrica. Métodos Trata-se de um estudo observacional transversal retrospectivo, realizado em um hospital localizado na cidade de Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil. Foram avaliados 70 prontuários de pacientes que realizaram cirurgia bariátrica, nos períodos de antes de 2 meses e mais de 6 meses após a cirurgia bariátrica. A análise estatística foi realizada no programa SPSS 17.0®. Resultados A pressão arterial inicial foi de 130/85 mmHg, passando para 120/80 mmHg (p < 0,01). Com relação ao perfil metabólico antes de dois meses, o HDL foi de 34 mg/dL, o colesterol total foi de 195,07 ± 40,17 mg/dL, o LDL foi de 118,22 ± 41,28 mg/dL, os triglicerídeos foram de 141,09 ± 43,39 mg/dL, e a glicemia de jejum foi de 90 mg/dL. Após 6 meses de cirurgia, os valores passaram para 43 mg/dL, 133,67 ± 28,14 mg/dL, 65,53 ± 24,3 mg/dL, 104,41 ± 29,6 mg/dL, e 77 mg/dL, respectivamente (p < 0,01). Com relação ao uso de medicamentos, 41% utilizaram anti-hipertensivos, 39% utilizaram hipolipemiantes, 10% utilizaram hipoglicemiantes orais e 97% utilizaram suplementos antes dos 2 meses de cirurgia. Após os 6 meses, os percentuais foram alterados para 21%, 19%, 9% e 99%, respectivamente. Conclusões O estudo mostra o sucesso da cirurgia bariátrica em pacientes obesos com comorbidades, revelando melhora no perfil metabólico e redução na utilização de medicamentos para tratamento de comorbidades.
Muchos países de América Latina y el Caribe están introduciendo reformas que pueden influir profundamente en la forma como se prestan los servicios de salud y en quienes los reciben. Tanto en la Cumbre de las Américas de 1994 como en la "Reunión Especial sobre Reforma del Sector de la Salud" de 1995, organizada por la Organización Panamericana de la Salud/Organización Mundial de la Salud (OPS/OMS), el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo, el Banco Mundial y otros organismos multilaterales y bilaterales, los gobiernos de la Región decidieron apoyar la generación de capacidad de análisis y la capacitación en lo relativo a las reformas del sector de la salud. En consecuencia, en 1997, la OPS y la Agencia de los Estados Unidos para el Desarrollo Internacional lanzaron la "Iniciativa Regional de Reforma del Sector de la Salud en América Latina y el Caribe". Esta iniciativa tiene un financiamiento de aproximadamente US$ 10 millones hasta el año 2002 para apoyar actividades en Bolivia, Brasil, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haití, Honduras, Jamaica, México, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Perú y República Dominicana, busca promover una prestación más equitativa y eficaz de los servicios básicos de salud sustentando actividades regionales, y se encuentra ya en su tercer año de implementación.
Many countries throughout Latin America and the Caribbean are introducing reforms that can profoundly influence how health services are provided and who receives them. Governments in the region identified the need for a network to support health reform by building capacity in analysis and training, both at the Summit of the Americas in 1994 and at the Special Meeting on Health Sector Reform, which was convened in 1995 by an interagency committee of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization, the Inter-American Development Bank, the World Bank, and other multilateral and bilateral agencies. In response, in 1997 the Pan American Health Organization and the United States Agency for the International Development launched the Latin America and Caribbean Regional Health Sector Reform Initiative. The Initiative has approximately US$ 10 million in funding through the year 2002 to support activities in Bolivia, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Peru. Now in its third year of implementation, the Initiative supports regional activities seeking to promote more equitable and effective delivery of basic health services.