Abstract This study determined the effect of thiourethane-functionalized fillers (TU) on the antimicrobial properties, cytotoxicity, degree of conversion (DC), water sorption (Wsp) and solubility (Wsl) of experimental composites. TU-modified fillers were added at different ratios in experimental composites: 0 (Control-TU0), 25% (TU25), 50% (TU50), 75% (TU75) and 100wt% (TU100). The antimicrobial properties were detected through the exhaustion test and counting of Streptococus mutans colonies for biofilm formation. Cytotoxicity to human gingival fibroblasts was evaluated in three different parameters: XTT (2,3-Bis-(2-Methoxy-4-Nitro-5-Sulfophenyl)-2H-Tetrazolium-5-Carboxanilide), NRU (Neutral Red Uptake assay) and CVDE (Crystal Violet Dye Exclusion test)) at the same cells. ELISA was used to measure the IL-6 and b-FGF biomarkers. DC was determined by Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, while Wsp and Wsl by mass variations. Inhibitory capacity of biofilm formation was not observed for any material. All groups presented at least 70% of cell survival within the observed periods (24h and 7 days). Positive control (toxic) had high IL-6 values and low b-FGF values. No significant variations in DC, Wsp, and Wsl were observed among the experimental groups. The use of thiourethane did not present antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity and the tested materials presented equivalent properties to those conventionally used in dentistry.
Abstract Introduction The resin composite superficial layer not polymerized due to the presence of oxygen leads to clinical problems as color alteration by the absorption of pigments. Objective Evaluate the effect of different techniques to control the formation of the composite resin dispersion layer on the optical properties of a commercial composite. Material and method Resin composite Estelite Sigma specimens were made. The specimens were light-cured with the LED Bluephase G2 device (1200 mW/cm2 - 40 s). The groups were determined according to three different techniques: 1) no treatment (control); 2) light-curing through a glycerin gel layer on the surface; 3) polishing with abrasive discs after light-curing. The color stability (ΔE) and the translucency parameter were determined by the spectroscopy method (Easyshade Compact Vita) as a function of the CIELab parameter. The analyzes were performed immediately after photoactivation and repeated after 7 days of storage in water or 7 days in coffee. The results were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey test (α = 0.05). Result No difference was found for ΔE in groups aged in water. When stored in coffee, the control group had the highest value of ΔE while the polished group generated the lowest color change. The glycerin gel groups promoted intermediated results. The translucency parameter was not affected by the treatments tested. Conclusion: The glycerin-based gel layer minimizes the color change in those regions that the finishing and polishing instruments are difficult to access.
Resumo Introdução A camada superficial de resina composta não polimerizada, em função da presença do oxigênio, ocasiona problemas clínicos, como alteração de cor por absorção de pigmentos. Objetivo Determinar o efeito de diferentes técnicas usadas no controle da formação da camada de dispersão sobre as propriedades ópticas de uma resina composta comercial. Material e método Espécimes foram produzidos com a resina composta Estelite Sigma. A fotoativação foi conduzida com uma fonte de luz LED Bluephase G2 (1.200 mW/cm2 por 40 s). Os grupos foram determinados em função de três técnicas distintas: 1) sem tratamento (controle); 2) fotoativação com gel de glicerina; 3) polimento com lixa abrasiva após a fotoativação. A estabilidade de cor (ΔE) e o parâmetro de translucidez foram determinados pelo método de espectroscopia de reflectância (Easyshade Compac, Vita) empregando o parâmetro CIELab. As análises foram realizadas imediatamente após a fotoativação e repetidas após 7 dias de armazenamento em água ou em café. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância e ao teste de Tukey (α = 0,05). Resultado Não houve diferença para ΔE nos grupos envelhecidos em água. Quando armazenados em café, o grupo controle apresentou o maior valor de ΔE, enquanto o grupo polido gerou a menor alteração de cor. A aplicação do gel de glicerina produziu resultados intermediários. O parâmetro de translucidez não foi afetado pelos tratamentos testados. Conclusão O uso do gel de glicerina minimiza a alteração de cor nas regiões de difícil acesso aos instrumentos de acabamento e de polimento.
The aim of this study was to determine the degradation resistance of three new formulations-silorane-, Ormocer- and dimer-acid-based materials-and compare them to the traditional dimethacrylate-based materials. One silorane- (Filtek P90, P90), one Ormocer- (Ceram-X, CX), one dimer-acid- (N'Durance, ND) and two dimethacrylate-based (Filtek P60, P60; Tetric Ceram, TC) materials were investigated. Water sorption (Wsp) and solubility (Wsl) were determined after the materials were immersed in water for 28 days. Knoop hardness (KH) was determined before and after 24 h immersion in pure ethanol. The flexural-strength (FS) was determined by the bending test after one-week storage in a dry environment or after one-week immersion in pure ethanol. Data were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test (95%). The three new formulations showed lower Wsp than the dimethacrylate-based formulation. CX (0.50 ± 0.17%) and ND (0.72 ± 0.19%) exhibited the lowest Wsp, whereas P90 (0.02 ± 0.03%) and P60 (0.04 ± 0.03%) showed the lowest Wsl. All resins showed reduced Knoop hardness number (KHN) after ethanol immersion. P60 presented the lowest decrease in KH value (19 ± 5%). TC (48 ± 3%) and P90 (39 ± 9%) showed the highest KHN decrease after ethanol storage. The FS of CX, ND and TC were affected by ethanol storage. The new formulations did not improve the degradation resistance, as compared with the traditional methacrylate-based materials.
The aim of this study was to evaluate: (i) the absorption of photo-initiators and emission spectra of light curing units (LCUs); and (ii) the degree of conversion (DC) of experimental composites formulated with different photo-initiators when activated by different LCUs. Blends of BisGMA, UDMA, BisEMA and TEGDMA with camphorquinone (CQ) and/ or 1-phenyl-1,2-propanedione (PPD) were prepared. Dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) was used as co-initiator. Each mixture was loaded with 65 wt% of silanated filler particles. One quartz-tungsten-halogen - QTH (XL 2500, 3M/ESPE) and two lightemitting diode (LED) LCUs (UltraBlue IS, DMC and UltraLume LED 5, Ultradent) were used for activation procedures. Irradiance (mW/cm²) was calculated by the ratio of the output power by the area of the tip, and spectral distribution with a spectrometer (USB 2000). The absorption curve of each photo-initiator was determined using a spectrophotometer (Varian Cary 5G). DC was assessed by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (5%). No significant difference was found for DC values when using LED LCUs regardless of the photo-initiator type. However, PPD showed significantly lower DC values than composites with CQ when irradiated with QTH. PPD produced DC values similar to those of CQ, but it was dependent on the LCU type.
This study investigated the influence of ethanol concentration on softening tests for cross-link density evaluation (microhardness) of dental composites. Specimens of Filtek Z100 (3M ESPE) were light-activated by standard or pulse-delay methods. After initial Knoop hardness readings (KHN1), half of specimens (n = 10) for each irradiation method was stored in 100% ethanol, and half in 75% ethanol, during 24 hours, and hardness was determined anew. Hardness deterioration (DKHN) was recorded as the difference between pre and post-storage values. KHN1 data were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha = 0.05), and hardness deterioration was analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha= 0.05). For KHN1, no significant differences were detected between the activation modes (p = 0.697). Samples light-activated by the pulse-delay method presented significantly higher softening compared to the standard mode when samples were immersed in 100% ethanol. Conversely, no significant differences between curing modes were detected for samples stored in 75% ethanol.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the increase of energy density on Knoop hardness of Z250 and Esthet-X composite resins. Cylindrical cavities (3 mm in diameter X 3 mm in depth) were prepared on the buccal surface of 144 bovine incisors. The composite resins were bulk-inserted and polymerized using different light-curing units and times: conventional QTH (quartz-tungsten-halogen; 700 mW/cm²; 20 s, 30 s and 40 s); LED (light-emitting diode; 440 mW/cm²; 20 s, 30 s and 40 s); PAC (xenon plasma arc; 1700 mW/cm²; 3 s, 4.5 s and 6 s). The specimens were stored at 37°C for 24 h prior to sectioning for Knoop hardness assessment. Three measurements were obtained for each depth: top surface, 1 mm and 2 mm. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05). Regardless of the light source or energy density, Knoop hardness of Z250 was statistically significant higher than that of Esthet-X (p<0.05). Specimens cured with PAC had lower hardness than those cured with QTH and LED (p<0.05). Higher Knoop hardness was obtained when the energy density was increased for LED and PAC (p<0.05). No statistically significant differences (p>0.05) were found for QTH. Knoop hardness values decreased with the increase of depth. The increase of energy density produced composites with higher Knoop hardness means using LED and PAC.
Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do aumento da densidade de energia na dureza Knoop das resinas compostas Z250 e Esthet-X. Cavidades cilíndricas (3 mm de diâmetro X 3mm de profundidade) foram preparadas na superfície vestibular de 144 incisivos bovinos. As resinas compostas foram inseridas em incremento único e fotopolimerizadas com diferentes unidades e tempos de fotopolimerização: luz halógena convencional (700 mW/cm²; 20 s, 30 s and 40 s); LED (diodo emissor de luz; 440 mW/cm²; 20 s, 30 s and 40 s); PAC (arco de plasma de xenônio; 1700 mW/cm²; 3 s, 4,5 s and 6 s). Os espécimens foram armazenados a 37°C durante 24 h, previamente à realização das leituras de dureza Knoop. Foram realizadas três leituras por profundidade: superfície, 1 mm e 2 mm. Os dados foram submetidos à ANOVA e ao teste de Tukey (p<0,05). Independente da unidade de fotopolimerização ou da densidade de energia, a dureza do compósito Z250 foi estatisticamente superior do que o compósito Esthet-X (p<0.05). A dureza dos compósitos fotoativados por PAC foi estatisticamente inferior em relação aos compósitos fotoativados por luz halógena ou LED (p<0.05) que, por sua vez, não diferiram entre si, independentemente da profundidade. O aumento do tempo de exposição produziu compósitos com maiores valores de dureza Knoop quando se utilizou LED ou PAC (p<0.05). Para luz halógena o aumento do tempo de exposição não influenciou os valores de dureza (p>0.05). Os valores de dureza Knoop diminuíram com o aumento da profundidade. O aumento da densidade de energia produziu compósitos com maior dureza Knoop quando o LED e o PAC foram utilizados como fontes de polimerização.