With AIDS/HIV, early detection is of key importance to public health, as well as disseminating prevention information and providing timely and appropriate treatment. In Bolivia, at the end of 2006 approximately 50% had AIDS at the time of diagnosis, detection having occurred late in the illness. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Bolivia is concentrated, with prevalence rates over 5% among the atrisk population, primarily men who have sex with men. From January 1984 through October 2006, the total number of HIV/AIDS cases reported in Bolivia rose to 2 190, with 1 239 HIV and 951 AIDS cases, and underreporting estimated to be over 70% country-wide. The United National Joint Program on AIDS (UNAIDS) estimated that by the end of 2006 there would be 6 700 people living with HIV/AIDS in Bolivia. In the context of this scenario, the article describes the challenges facing the HIV/AIDS program and the strategies developed to address the epidemic in Bolivia. In addition, the UN-AIDS/PAHO strategies are stressed and must get underway for HIV/AIDS prevention and control activities in the country.