ABSTRACT The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of corn processing on performance and intestinal parameters of weanling piglets. To accomplish our goal, 42 piglets (21 days-old, 7.18±1.0 kg body weight) were randomly allocated (seven pens/treatment; three pigs/pen) to one of two treatments: ground corn – corn ground through a hammer mill with a 1.0-mm screen after being ground by a hammer mill with a 3.0-mm screen, and extruded corn – corn was wet extruded after being ground by a hammer mill with a 2.0-mm screen and, after extrusion, it was ground by a hammer mill with a 1.0-mm screen. In both methods, corn from the same batch was used. Results were considered statistically significant when P<0.05 and a tendency when P<0.10. Analyses were performed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Pigs fed ground or extruded corn diet had similar growth performance. Duodenum and jejunum of pigs fed extruded corn had greater villus height compared with those of pigs fed ground corn. Crypt depth was not influenced by corn processing. Duodenum and jejunum of pigs fed extruded corn had greater villus:crypt ratio compared with those of pigs fed ground corn. In the duodenum, the expression of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) was greater, and the expression of Occludin-1 tended to be greater in pigs fed the extruded corn diets. There was no effect of corn processing on ZO-1 and Occludin-1 expression in the jejunum, nor TGF-β1 expression in duodenum and jejunum. There was no effect of the type of corn processing on colonic total bacteria or Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacillus abundance. Piglets fed diets with ground corn or extruded corn have similar growth performance. However, piglets fed diets with extruded corn present improved intestinal morphology and tight junction protein expression compared with those fed ground corn.
RESUMO Objetivou-se avaliar o uso do polímero hidro retentor no crescimento inicial de cafeeiros em diferentes níveis de irrigação e tipos de mudas. O experimento foi instalado em vasos com solo argiloso, em casa de vegetação do Setor de Cafeicultura, Universidade Federal de Lavras. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com parcelas sub-subdivididas e três repetições, totalizando 48 unidades experimentais. Quatro níveis de irrigação (25%; 50%; 75% e 100% de água disponível) foram aleatorizados às parcelas; os tipos de mudas (formadas em saquinho e tubete) foram aleatorizadas às sub-parcelas; e a ausência ou presença do polímero hidro retentor foram aleatorizados nas sub-subparcelas. Nos tratamentos com uso do polímero hidro retentor utilizou-se a diluição de 1,5 kg de polímero em 400 litros d'água, para utilização da dose de 1,5 litros da solução por planta. Em intervalos de 60 dias durante a condução do experimento (360 dias a partir da implantação), avaliou-se o diâmetro de caule, altura de planta, área foliar, número de folhas e número de ramos plagiotrópicos dos cafeeiros. O polímero hidro retentor hidratado beneficiou o crescimento do cafeeiro em sistema irrigado. A irrigação promoveu maior crescimento das plantas, sendo que as mudas formadas em saquinhos apresentam maior crescimento que mudas em tubetes.
ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of a water-retaining polymer on the initial growth of coffee plants for different levels of irrigation and types of seedling. The experiment was set up in pots with a clayey soil, in a greenhouse of the Sector for Coffee Production of the Federal University of Lavras, Brazil. The experiment was arranged in a randomised block design into sub-lots with three replications, giving a total of 48 experimental units. Four levels of irrigation (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the available water) were randomly assigned to the lots; the type of seedling (grown in bags or tubes) were randomly assigned to the sub-lots, and the use or not of the water-retaining polymer randomly assigned to the sub-sub-lots. In the treatments with water-retaining polymer, a dilution of 1.5 Kg of polymer to 400 litres of water was used at a dose of 1.5 litres of solution per plant. The following were evaluated at intervals of 60 days during the experiment (360 days from planting): stem diameter, plant height, leaf area, number of leaves and number of plagiotropic branches on the coffee plants. Hydrated water-retaining polymer favoured the growth of coffee plants under an irrigated system. Irrigation resulted in greater plant growth, with the seedlings grown in bags showing more growth than those grown in tubes.