The effects of aflatoxin and fumonisin and their combination on egg production and quality, as well as the efficacy of a mycotoxin adsorbent in reducing or eliminating these effects in commercial layers. A number of 168 layers with initial age of 37 weeks were submitted to an experimental period of 56 days. A completely randomized experimental design in a 3x2+1 factorial arrangement was applied (3 treatments with mycotoxins: aflatoxin (AF), fumonisin (FU), or aflatoxin + fumonisin (AF+FU); 2 treatments with or without adsorbent; and a control group that was fed no mycotoxins, nor adsorbent), totaling 7 treatments with 6 replicated of 4 birds/cage. The dietary inclusion levels were 1ppm AF, 25ppm FU, and 2 kg adsorbent/ton feed. Birds fed AF presented the lowest percentage of lay (p=0.0594). Egg mass was the lowest (p<0.05) in the AF+FU treatment (49.49g). The treatment with AF resulted in higher eggshell thickness and strength (p<0.05) than the FU treatment and the control group. The inclusion of the adsorbent in the AF contaminated feed reduced eggshell strength, which returned to levels similar to those of the control group. The observed changes indicate that aflatoxin is toxic at a concentration of 1ppm, and that the effects of fumonisin were less evident as a function of the low dose applied. The inclusion of the glucan (2kg/ton) effectively reverted some of the toxic effects of aflatoxin and, at lower extension, those of fumonisin, when these mycotoxins were invidually added to commercial layer feeds.
Propolis is one of the hive products that has been used extensively in folk medicine, due to its several biological and pharmacological properties. Besides, propolis-containing products have been intensely marketed by the pharmaceutical industry and health-food stores. This work was carried out in order to investigate whether propolis treatment could revert the metabolic alterations of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Animals were kept in metabolic cages and diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg, IV). After a week, rats with glycemia higher than 230 mg/dL were divided into two groups and treated with ethanolic extract of propolis (10 and 90 mg/kg, PO) for seven days. Glycemia and free fatty acids were determined, as well as food and water intake, body weight and urine volume were registered weekly. Data showed no significant differences in the analyzed variables. Based on these results, one may conclude that propolis had no effects after diabetes establishment, in our conditions assays. Further assays with different concentrations of propolis and periods of administration should be carried out in order to evaluate its therapeutic potential in this disease.