Abstract In the present work, spatial and seasonal fluctuations of the abundance and diversity of mesozooplankton are presented, with special attention being given to copepod assemblages from coastal area of the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago (FNA) (3°50'24''S and 32°24'48''W). Sampling was carried out during the dry and rainy seasons of two consecutive years (July and December 2013) and (June and November 2014). A total of 37 mesozooplankton taxa were recorded, being the copepods the most diversified group (15 taxa). The Subclass Copepoda dominated in both periods sampled, comprising 53% and 86% of the total abundance in the dry and rainy season respectively. The species considered abundant were: Calanopia americana, Undinula vulgaris, Oithona plumifera and Corycaeus speciosus. The rainy season favored a significant increase in the abundance of mesozooplankton and copepods. However, a low value of the Shannon-Wiener diversity index was observed in this same seasonal period. This was explained by the dominance of the species C. americana and U. vulgaris in the studied area. Spatial differences have not been verified. The copepod assemblages was composed mostly by species considered as predator-carnivours of greater importance on the pelagic trophic web, indicators of oligotrophic conditions and components of a major portion of fish food items. Thus, we suggest that a spatially homogeneous mesozooplankton community characterizes the coastal area of Fernando de Noronha Archipelago with variations related mainly to the seasonal factor.
Resumo Neste presente trabalho, são apresentadas as flutuações espacial e sazonal da abundância e diversidade do mesozooplâncton, com especial atenção para assembleia de copépodes da área costeira do Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha (AFN) (3°50'24''S and 32°24'48''W). A amostragem foi realizada durante as estações seca e chuvosa de dois anos consecutivos (julho e dezembro de 2013) e (junho e novembro de 2014). Um total de 37 taxa do mesozooplâncton foram registrados, sendo os copépodes o grupo mais diversificado (15 taxa). A Subclasse Copepoda dominou em ambos os períodos amostrados, com valores de abundância relativa equivalentes a 53% e 86%, respectivamente, nas estações seca e chuvosa. As espécies consideradas abundantes foram: Calanopia americana, Undinula vulgaris, Oithona plumifera e Corycaeus speciosus. A estação chuvosa favoreceu um aumento significativo na abundância do mesozooplâncton e copépodes. No entanto, um baixo valor do índice de diversidade de Shannon-Wiener foi observado para este mesmo período sazonal. Isso foi explicado pelo domínio das espécies C. americana e U. vulgaris na área estudada. Diferença espacial não foi verificada. A assembleia de copépodes apresentou um maior número de espécies consideradas carnívoro-predador de grande importância na teia trófica pelágica, indicadoras de condições oligotróficas e componente de grande porção dos itens alimentares dos peixes. Assim, sugerimos que a área costeira do Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha é caracterizada por uma comunidade do mesozooplâncton espacialmente homogênea, onde as mudanças observadas estão principalmente relacionadas ao fator sazonal.
This study aimed at evaluating the efficacy and safety of meropenem as first choice treatment for nosocomial pneumonia (NP) in intensive care units (ICU) in Hospital das Clínicas (HC) - University of São Paulo; a hospital with high incidence of antimicrobial resistance. Prospective, open, and non-comparative trial with meropenem were done in patients with ventilator-associated or aspiration NP in 2 ICUs at HC - University of São Paulo. Etiologic investigation was done through bronchoalveolar lavage and blood cultures prior to study entry. Twenty-five (25) critically ill patients with NP were enrolled (mean age 40 years). Ventilator-acquired pneumonia was responsible for 76% of cases and aspiration NP for 24%. Specific etiologic agents were identified and considered to be clinically and temporally responsible for NP in 11 (44%) patients. A. baumanii was responsible for 6 cases (55%), P. aeruginosa for 3 (27%), and S. aureus for 2 (18%). At completion of treatment, 19 patients (76%) showed either cure (48%) or improvement (28%) after use of meropenem therapy. Mortality was 12% at the end of therapy (8% after excluding 1 non-evaluable patient). After 4 to 6 weeks of follow-up, 12 (48%) patients had improved or been totally cured, and overall mortality was 24%. Clinical complications were observed in 11 patients (44%), with none of them definitely related to the study drug. Meropenem as monotherapy was effective and well-tolerated in most NP patients in our ICU. The low mortality rate in this study might have been due to first choice use of this drug. Controlled, drug comparative clinical trials are needed to support this preliminary observation.