Changes in immune system functions are one of the most important consequences of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Studies have reported a higher prevalence of disease mediated by immunological hypersensitivity mechanisms in HIV-positive patients. This study aims to observe how immunological changes in HIV-infected children interfere in atopy determinants. Fifty-seven HIV-positive children were studied between June 2004-August 2005 to evaluate the possible modifications in atopy diagnosis from prick test environmental allergen reactivity. Patients were subjected to two evaluations: on both occasions, atopic and non-atopic groups were correlated with immunological (CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte concentrations and serum levels of IgA, IgM, IgG and IgE) and viral parameters (HIV viral load). The percent atopy was 20.05 in the first and 29.82 in the second evaluation and atopy was diagnosed in patients without immunosuppression or with moderate immunosuppression. Six patients changed from a negative to a positive atopy profile. One patient with a decreased CD4+ T lymphocyte concentration failed to demonstrate prick test positivity between evaluations. Multivariate analysis showed that the variables associated with atopy diagnosis included a personal history of allergic diseases as well as elevated IgE for age and elevated IgE levels. Atopy development in HIV-infected children seems to be modulated by genetic and environmental factors as well as immunological condition.
BACKGROUND: The clinical evaluation of patients with postinfectious bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is variable. OBJECTIVE: Substantiate the clinical characteristics, the evolution and the complementary tests of 48 patients with post infectious bronchiolitis obliterans (BO). METHOD: Observational and retrospective study. Diagnosis of BO was based upon clinical criteria, CT scan findings and exclusion of other diseases. History prior to diagnosis and complementary tests were evaluated as well as initial and final values of oxygen saturation. RESULTS: Mean age of patients at the acute stage of the infectious disease was of 9.6 Thirty two of the patients were male. All were hospitalized during the acute stage, 14 of them (29%) in the ICU. Four patients died two years after onset of acute bronchiolitis. During evolution all required emergency care due to exacerbation of the pulmonary condition and 24 (50%) were hospitalized, 2 of them in the ICU. The majority continued presenting cough, wheezing, crackles and hyperinflation, however to a lesser degree. Mean of initial arterial saturation was of 89% and final of 92%. The most common infectious agents in the sputum samples were H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae and M. caterrhalis. Increased serum IgM and IgG were found in 9 and 7 patients respectively. The most frequent findings at thorax CT scan were mosaic perfusion, bronchioectasis, atelectasis and bronchial wall thickening. CONCLUSION: Post infectious BO is a chronic and severe disease with persistent symptoms that in general affect infants. Positive serum cultures and increased serum immunoglobulins are suggestive of a chronic infectious inflammatory condition.
INTRODUÇÃO: A evolução clínica da bronquiolite obliterante pós infecciosa é variável. OBJETIVO: Verificar as características clínicas, a evolução e os exames complementares de 48 pacientes com bronquiolite obliterante (BO) pós-infecciosa. MÉTODO: Estudo observacional e retrospecitvo. O diagnóstico de bronquiolite obliterante foi baseado em critérios clínicos, tomográficos e pela exclusão de outras doenças. Avaliou-se a história prévia ao diagnóstico e exames complementares. A saturação arterial foi avaliada pela primeira e última medidas. RESULTADOS: A média da idade dos pacientes (32 do sexo masculino e 16 do feminino) no quadro agudo da doença infecciosa foi de 9,6 meses e na primeira consulta de 30,5 meses, com um tempo médio de acompanhamento de 3,3 anos. Todos foram internados no quadro agudo, sendo que 14 (29%) em UTI.Quatro pacientes faleceram dois anos após o quadro de bronquiolite aguda. Na evolução, todos necessitaram de consultas de emergência por exacerbação do quadro pulmonar e 24 (50%) de hospitalização, dos quais 2 em UTI. A maioria persistiu com tosse, sibilos e estertores, porém em menor intensidade. A média da saturação arterial inicial foi de 89% e a final de 92%. Na cultura de escarro, os agentes infecciosos mais comuns foram: H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae e M. catarrhalis. As imunoglobulinas séricas M e G encontravam-se elevadas em 9 e 7 pacientes, respectivamente. Os achados mais freqüentes na tomografia axial computadorizada de tórax foram: perfusão em mosaico, bronquiectasias, aprisionamento de ar, atelectasia e espessamento brônquico. CONCLUSÃO: A BO pós-infecciosa é uma doença crônica e grave, com sintomas contínuos, que geralmente compromete lactentes. A microbiologia de escarro e as imunoglubulinas séricas aumentadas refletem um processo infeccioso e inflamatório crônico persitente.