RESUMO No Brasil, a abobrinha-de-moita (Cucurbita pepo L.) é uma olerícola de importância socioeconômica que tem sofrido prejuízos crescentes, devido principalmente aos danos causados pela infecção pelo zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV). Embora a ocorrência do cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) seja menos frequente, em plantas de C. pepo ‘Caserta’ ele pode causar sintomas como mosqueado, mosaico, distorção de folhas e frutos, além de redução do desenvolvimento das plantas. Para minimizar o prejuízo, a medida de manejo mais utilizada é a aplicação preventiva, porém ineficiente, de inseticidas, visando ao controle da população de afídeos, vetores desses vírus. Assim, a busca por formas de controle ambientalmente menos danosas tem sido alvo de investigação. Este estudo visou avaliar a ação de extratos foliares de espécies nativas de Caryophyllales, como inibidoras da infecção pelo CMV e ZYMV em C. pepo e como indutoras de resistência. Extratos de folhas frescas (EFs) de Guapira opposita, Pisonia ambigua (Nyctaginaceae), Gallesia integrifolia e Seguieria langsdorffii (Phytolaccaceae), previamente avaliados no patossistema tobacco mosaic virus / Nicotiana glutinosa, foram submetidos a diluições progressivas e pulverizados em folhas cotiledonares de C. pepo, 30 min antes da inoculação com o CMV e ZYMV. EFs de G. integrifolia não induziram qualquer inibição em nenhum dos patossistemas. EFs de G. opposita induziram inibição da infecção das plantas inoculadas com o ZYMV inferior a 50%. Na concentração de 1:40, inibiu a infecção das plantas pelo CMV em 70%. Como os extratos foliares de P. ambigua e S. langsdorffii induziram altas porcentagens de inibição, essas espécies foram selecionadas para avaliação de indução de resistência, em experimentos de pré-tratamentos. Os EFs inibiram a infecção de ZYMV e CMV em C. pepo, quando aplicados até 48 h antes da inoculação. Os EFs de S. langsdorffii e G. opposita, também testada para esse sistema, foram eficientes quando aplicados até 72 h antes da inoculação do CMV. Constatou-se que os EFs podem ser preparados a partir de folhas secas e mantidos a -20°C por, pelo menos três anos, conservando a sua atividade inibidora. Esses resultados expandem as possibilidades de manejo das principais viroses da abobrinha-de-moita, de maneira sustentável, sem causar danos ao ambiente, aos produtores e aos consumidores.
ABSTRACT In Brazil, zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) is a socioeconomically important vegetable affected by damage caused primarily by zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV). Although the occurrence of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is less frequent, in C. pepo ‘Caserta’ plants it can cause symptoms such as mottle, mosaic, leaf and fruit distortion, as well as reduced plant development. To minimize the damage, the most widely used management technique is the preventive, albeit inefficient, application of insecticides, aimed at controlling aphids, the vectors of this virus. Thus, the search for more effective and less environmentally harmful control methods has been the target of investigations. The purpose of the present study was to assess the action of the extracts of four native Caryophyllales species, as inhibitors of infection by CMV and ZYMV in C. pepo, in addition to evaluating the possible induced resistance in this species. Fresh leaf extracts (LEs) of Guapira opposita, Pisonia ambigua (Nyctaginaceae), Gallesia integrifolia and Seguieria langsdorffii (Phytolaccaceae), previously assessed in the tobacco mosaic virus / Nicotiana glutinosa pathosystem, were submitted to progressive dilutions sprayed on cotyledonary C. pepo leaves 30 min before inoculation with CMV and ZYMV. Leaf extracts of G. integrifolia did not induce inhibition in any of the pathosystems assessed. Guapira opposita LEs inhibited the infection of plants inoculated with ZYMV below 50% but inhibited CMV infection by 70% at a concentration of 1:40. Given that leaf extracts of P. ambigua and S. langsdorffii induced high percentage inhibition, evident in the number of asymptomatic plants and confirmed by serological tests, these species were selected to assess induced resistance in pre-treatment experiments. The LEs were efficient in inhibiting ZYMV and CMV infection in C. pepo when applied up to 48 h before inoculation. The LEs of S. langsdorffii and G. opposita, also tested for this system, were efficient when applied up to 72 h before CMV inoculation. The LEs can be prepared from dry leaves and maintained at -20°C for at least three years, conserving their inhibitory activity. These results expand the possibilities for producers and consumers alike in the sustainable management of the main zucchini viruses, without damaging the environment.
RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar desfechos radiográficos pós-operatórios de fraturas do planalto tibial Schatzker V e VI tratados com dupla placa ou placa bloqueada única lateral. Métodos: Foram selecionados 63 pacientes operados no período de dezembro de 2011 a fevereiro de 2016, sendo 47 do grupo dupla placa e 16 do grupo placa bloqueada lateral única. Todos os pacientes tiveram seguimento mínimo de seis meses. A avaliação da redução das fraturas foi baseada nos parâmetros radiográficos: redução articular, alinhamento sagital, alinhamento coronal e largura condilar. Resultados: A avaliação radiográfica não demonstrou diferença estatística no pós-operatório imediato nem no tardio. Conclusão: Apesar da amostra reduzida, o estudo vai ao encontro dos resultados mais atuais publicados na literatura médica. A gravidade das fraturas do planalto tibial Shatzker V e VI pode ser minimizada com a correta indicação do implante segundo a morfologia da fratura. Nível de Evidência III, Estudo retrospectivo comparativo.
ABSTRACT Objective: To compare postoperative radiographic outcomes of Schatzker type V and VI tibial plateau fractures treated with double-plate or single lateral locked plate. Methods: Sixty-three patients operated from December 2011 to February 2016 were selected, 47 from the double-plate group and 16 from the single lateral locked plate group. Minimum follow-up for all patients was 6 months. Fracture reduction evaluation was based on radiographic parameters: joint reduction, sagittal alignment, coronal alignment, and condylar width. Results: Radiographic evaluation showed no statistical difference in the immediate or late postoperative periods. Conclusion: Despite the reduced sample, this study is aligned with current results published in the medical literature. The severity of Schatzker type V and VI tibial plateau fractures can be minimized by the correct indication for the implant regarding fracture morphology. Level of Evidence III, Retrospective comparative study.
This study describes a single step, high yield and purity, ecofriendly and scalable procedure to prepare a selenium derivative (diethyl selenodiglycolate). Diethyl selenodiglycolate rapidly reduces hypochlorous acid (HOCl, second-order rate constant of 7 × 107 M−1 s−1) to generate its corresponding selenoxide. In activated HL-60 cells, diethyl selenodiglycolate selectively reacted with HOCl (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) = 23.07 µM) but not with superoxide anion radical or hydrogen peroxide without any cytotoxicity. These results show that this synthetically simple selenide reacts in a very efficient and specific way with the harmful pro-oxidant HOCl being a promising compound to be applied in oxidative inflammatory-related conditions.
Biodiesel purification by water washing has been proved to be an unattractive process from an economic and environmental point of view. In this work, we propose the use of regenerated cellulose membranes from peanut shell as an alternative in the biodiesel purification. The preparation of the membranes was optimized from a central composite design, resulting in dense and non-porous membranes. However, in contact with biodiesel, the membranes undergo expansion due to the retention of methanol, water, and glycerol molecules, allowing the permeation of fatty acid methyl esters. The filtered biodiesel presents quality parameters, such as total ester content of 98.3 ± 1.4% and free glycerol content < 0.02%, in agreement with the main regulatory agencies. The regenerated cellulose membranes from peanut shell are easily prepared, with high repeatability (relative standard deviation (RSD) < 1.8%) and are presented as an economical and environmental solution for the biodiesel purification.
Representative tar balls collected in two distinct years (2012 and 2014) in a beach along the State of Bahia, northeastern Brazil, were geochemically characterized in order to identify correlations between them and investigate potential sources. Terpanes and steranes biomarkers (detected by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, GC-MS), carbon stable isotope ratio (δ13C), Ni and V ratios and polar compounds by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization in negative mode (ESI(-) FT-ICR MS) were evaluated. Three Brazilian oil samples from distinct sources were assessed as possible spill sources, comparing their results with the tar ball samples. Using chemometric techniques, it was verified correlation between the two set of tar ball samples, suggesting same source. However, no correlation with the oil samples was observed, with different geochemical profile among them. The heteroatom class distribution displayed severe degradation levels for tar balls and its seems that photo-oxidation and biodegradation processes were further relevant. Tar ball samples show multiple classes, most oxygenated, and with one sample showing considerable relative abundance of N1 class, suggesting it is from a more recent oil spill. In brief, our results suggest that the region, with very sensitive ecosystem, is possibly subjected to frequent spills from the same source.
Resumo Objetivo As diferenças entre crianças na atividade física moderada a vigorosa não são aleatórias. Este estudo investiga a relevância das características em níveis individuais e escolares para explicar essas diferenças. Métodos Foram amostradas 307 crianças (154 meninas) entre 5 e 10 anos, de 19 escolas portuguesas. A estatura e o peso foram medidos e o índice de massa corporal foi calculado. O tempo gasto em atividade física moderada a vigorosa foi medido por acelerometria. A coordenação motora grossa foi avaliada com a bateria do Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder e o status socioeconômico foi obtido através do sistema de apoio social da escola. As características da escola foram obtidas através de uma auditoria escolar objetiva. Uma análise multinível foi utilizada como implantada no Stata 15. Resultados As escolas explicaram 18,2% da variância total da atividade física moderada a vigorosa, com o restante atribuído às diferentes características das crianças. Os meninos foram mais ativos (β = 29,59 ± 11,52, p < 0,05) e o fato de ter níveis mais altos de coordenação motora grossa (β = 0,11 ± 0,04, p < 0,05) foi positivamente associado com a atividade física moderada a vigorosa diária. Os mais velhos (β = -5,00 ± 1,57, p < 0,05) e com maior status socioeconômico (β = -7,89 ± 3,12, p < 0,05) foram negativamente relacionados com a atividade física moderada a vigorosa. Com base nos correlatos a nível escolar, apenas a dimensão da área recreativa foi significativamente associada aos níveis de atividade física moderada a vigorosa. As crianças das escolas com área recreativa média (40 m2 a 69 m2) e grande (≥ 70 m2) foram menos ativas do que as crianças com áreas recreativas com menores dimensões (10 m2 a 39 m2). Conclusões A variação na atividade física moderada a vigorosa de escolares é explicada principalmente por suas características individuais; as características da escola também desempenham um papel, mas em menor grau. Futuros programas de intervenção para mudar esse comportamento devem ser mais personalizados, enfatizar principalmente as características em nível individual.
Abstract Objective: Children's differences in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels are not at random. This study investigates the relevance of individual- and school-level characteristics in explaining these differences. Methods: In total, 307 children (154 girls) aged 5-10 years, from 19 Portuguese schools, were sampled. Height and weight were measured, and body mass index was calculated. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was measured by accelerometry. Gross motor coordination was assessed with the KörperkoordinationsTest für Kinder battery and socio-economic status was obtained via the school social support system. School characteristics were obtained with an objective school audit. A multilevel analysis was used as implemented in Stata 15. Results: Schools explained 18.2% of the total variance in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, with the remainder being ascribed to children's distinct characteristics. Boys were more active (β = 29.59 ± 11.52, p < 0.05), and having higher gross motor coordination levels (β = 0.11 ± 0.04, p < 0.05) was positively associated with daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, whereas being older (β = −5.00 ± 1.57, p < 0.05) and having higher socio-economic status (β = −7.89 ± 3.12, p < 0.05) were negatively related with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. From the school-level correlates, only playground dimension was significantly associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels. Children from schools with medium (40 m2 to 69 m2) and large playground dimensions (≥70 m2) were less active than children with smaller playground dimensions (10 m2 to 39 m2). Conclusions: Variation in school children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity is mostly explained by their individual characteristics; school characteristics also play a role but to a smaller degree. Future intervention programs to change this behavior should be more personalized, emphasizing mostly individual-level characteristics.
In order to provide an effective and environmentally correct alternative for oil extraction, subcritical n-propane was used under different temperature and pressure conditions to obtain Brazil nut oil. The composition of the oil was determined and compared to the oils obtained by conventional methods. The result of the extraction yield obtained using subcritical fluid extraction (SFE) at 60 ºC, 6 MPa and granulometry < 1.40 mm (63.13%) presented minor differences to the yield obtained by Soxhlet extraction (SE) (68.44%) and Bligh and Dyer extraction (BD) (59.54%). The composition in fatty acids was similar regardless of the method of extraction used. Oxidized triacylglycerols (TAGs) were found in the oils extracted by SE and BD while they were not detected in the oils extracted by SFE. The quantity of bioactive compounds was higher in the oils obtained by SFE. Thus, the SFE using n-propane preserves the nutritional characteristics and lipophilic components of the oil, besides improving the availability of bioactive compounds from an effective “green extraction” without the use of toxic solvents.
This work reports the theoretical and experimental study of fragmentation reactions in the gas phase of five phenolic acids using triple quadrupole mass spectrometry by electrospray ionization in negative ionic mode, as well as the isotope exchange experiments. MS/MS spectra were analyzed to suggest the fragmentation mechanisms, while theoretical calculations at the theory level B3LYP/6-311+G** were performed to expose the proposed mechanisms viability for this class of compounds. As expected, compounds with aromatic methoxy substitution presented •CH3 radical elimination as the principal fragmentation pathway, forming dystonic ions. Compounds without methoxy substituents dissociate with higher energies losing the CO2, CO and H2O. The isotopic marking experiments indicated the exchange of hydrogens by deuterases in the hydroxyl protons, which corroborates with the proposed mechanisms.
Resumo Três espécies (2 novas) de Urocleidoides são descritas e/ou reportadas das brânquias de Schizodon fasciatus e Laemolyta proxima (Anostomidae) da bacia do Rio Jari, na Amazônia oriental brasileira. Urocleidoides jariensis n. sp. apresenta um órgão copulatório masculino (OCM) convoluto, com uma volta no sentido anti-horário, uma borda em tandem esclerotizada circular, associada à base do OCM; um vestíbulo vaginal fortemente esclerotizado e em forma de funil; um canal vaginal esclerotizado na porção proximal; e uma barra ventral em forma de V com constrição anteromedial e ampliações terminais. Urocleidoides ramentacuminatus n. sp. tem um OCM convoluto com, aproximadamente, uma volta no sentido anti-horário; uma peça acessória com uma porção distal em forma de gancho; uma âncora dorsal com haste curta e reta; e ponta da âncora com ornamentação como filamentos desfiados esclerotizados. Urocleidoides paradoxus é relatada pela primeira vez parasitando S. fasciatus.
Abstract Three species (2 new) of Urocleidoides are described and/or reported from the gills of Schizodon fasciatus and Laemolyta proxima (Anostomidae) from the Jari River in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. Urocleidoides jariensis n. sp. presents a sclerotized, tubular, spiral male copulatory organ (MCO) with one counterclockwise coil, a circular sclerotized tandem brim associated with the base of the MCO; a heavily sclerotized, funnel-shaped vaginal vestibule; and a broadly V-shaped ventral bar with anteromedial constriction and enlarged ends. Urocleidoides ramentacuminatus n. sp. has a sclerotized, tubular, spiral MCO with one counterclockwise coil; an accessory piece with a hook-shaped distal portion; and a dorsal anchor with a short, straight shaft; anchor point with ornamentation as sclerotized shredded filaments. Urocleidoides paradoxus is reported for the first time parasitizing S. fasciatus.
Abstract The Cerrado biome increasingly suffers from the environmental impacts of human action. Burning is known as an action used to destroy native vegetation and to clean areas mainly with the purpose of growing soybeans, corn, or raising cattle. In this study we aimed to investigate the influence of low-intensity burning on the chemical composition of a Red-Yellow Latosol in a region characterized as Cerrado sensu stricto. A total of 14 parcels of land were demarcated. In order to analyze the effects of fire on the soil chemical properties, soil samples were collected before and within 24 hours of the burning by means of the same methodology. An increase in organic matter and in the levels of Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Mn2+, Zn2+, B+, S, as well in the ratios characterizing the soil (CECt, SB, Ca+/T, Ca+/Mg+, V, and Ca+/K+), was observed. Variables that determine the acidity of the soil, such as pH and H + Al, presented changes, although not significant (p > 0.05).
Abstract The presence of acidic compounds as naphthenic acids in crude oil causes several problems for the petroleum industry, including corrosion in both upstream and downstream production processes. Based on this scenario, the main objective of this work was to investigate the removal of the acidic compound from two Brazilian heavy oils by adsorption processes using six potential adsorbents: powdered shale, activated carbon, bentonite, silica gel, powdered sandstone and powdered wood. These raw materials were previously characterized by conventional and surface analysis techniques, which show that they offer a good surface area and thermal stability. To evaluate the removal efficiency at the molecular level, the crude oil samples and the filtered oils were analyzed by negative electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry [ESI (-) FTICR MS]. The O2 class, which is related to the relatively high acidity of the samples, was the most abundant in both crude oil samples, moreover, this class was more retained by adsorbents. Silica gel, activated carbon and bentonite were the best adsorbents of acidic compounds from the tested oils, in agreement with their markedly higher surface area and porous volume. Additionally, a chromatographic analysis was performed and showed no changes in the oil profile.
Resumo Nos ecossistemas florestais, a dinâmica da serapilheira está relacionada à tipologia vegetal e as condições climáticas dos ambientes, as quais são influenciadas pela heterogeneidade topográfica da paisagem. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se diferentes condições de relevo (pedoformas convexa e côncava) alteram a dinâmica da serapilheira em Floresta Estacional Semidecidual na sub-bacia do ribeirão Cachimbal, Pinheiral-RJ. Foram selecionadas duas pedoformas adjacentes com relevo do tipo convexa (convexa-divergente) e côncava (côncava-convergente), sendo essas divididas em minissítios (MS) I, II, e III na pedoforma convexa e IV, V e VI na pedoforma côncava. Nos diferentes ambientes foram avaliados o estoque e a decomposição da serapilheira em duas estações do ano (chuvosa e seca). Para avaliar o estoque foram coletadas dez amostras de serapilheira de cada um dos MS, utilizando um gabarito quadrado com 25 cm de lado. Para avaliar a taxa de decomposição da serapilheira, foram selecionadas 10 g de folhas, as quais foram acondicionadas em litterbags, instalados no campo e coletadas em diferentes intervalos de tempo. O estoque e os teores de nutrientes da serapilheira foram influenciados em função do tipo da pedoforma, variação do gradiente topográfico e estação do ano, maiores estoques foram observados na pedoforma convexa, em estação seca e os maiores teores de K+ e Mg+2 foram observados nos MS inferiores das pedoformas. Por outro lado, os teores de carbono foram influenciados apenas pela estação do ano como maiores teores na estação chuvosa. A decomposição da serapilheira ocorre de maneira diferenciada em função da pedoforma, do gradiente topográfico e da estação do ano, cujos maiores valores foram observados na pedoforma convexa e na estação chuvosa.
Abstract In forest ecosystems the dynamics of burlap is related to the plant typology and to the climatic conditions of environments, which are influenced by the topographic heterogeneity of the landscape. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether different relief conditions (convex and concave pedoforms) alter the burlap dynamics in a semi-deciduous seasonal forest in the sub-basin of Cachimbal, Pinheiral - RJ state. Two adjacent landforms with relief convex type (convex-divergent) and concave (concave-convergent) were selected, and these ones were divided into mini sites (MS) I, II, and III in the convex landform and IV, V and VI in the concave landform. The stock and the decomposition of the burlap in two seasons (rainy and dry) were rated in different environments. To evaluate the stock, ten samples of litter from each MS were collected using a square template with 25-cm side. To evaluate the burlap decomposition rate, 10 g of leaves were selected, which were placed in litterbags, installed in the field and collected at different time intervals. Litter stock and nutrient contents were influenced by the pedoform type, topographic gradient variation and season, larger stocks were observed in convex pedoform in dry season and higher K+ and Mg+2 contents. in the lower pedoform MS. On the other hand, the carbon contents were influenced only by the season of the year like higher contents in the rainy season. The decomposition of burlap forming material occurs differently depending on the landform, topographic gradient and on the season, where the highest values were observed in the convex landform and in the rainy season.
RESUMO Enxaqueca piora o sofrimento do paciente que tem esclerose múltipla (EM). ID-migraine é uma ferramenta útil para seleção de pacientes com enxaqueca e Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) é um questionário que avalia o impacto da doença. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a presença e impacto de enxaqueca em pacientes com EM. Métodos: Pacientes diagnosticados com EM e tratados em clínicas especializadas foram convidados a responder um questionário online se também apresentassem cefaleia. Resultados: O estudo incluiu 746 participantes com cefaleia e EM que preencheram completamente as respostas. Foram 625 mulheres e 121 homens, sendo 69% dos pacientes com idade entre 20 e 40 anos. Enxaqueca foi identificada em 404 pacientes (54,1%) e moderado a grave impacto da doença foi observado em 68,3% dos casos. Conclusão: Enxaqueca é uma cefaleia primária frequente e incapacitante relatada por pacientes com EM.
ABSTRACT Migraine adds to the burden of patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS). The ID-migraine is a useful tool for screening migraine, and the Migraine Disability Assessment questionnaire can evaluate disease burden. The aim of the present study was to assess the presence and burden of migraine in patients with MS. Methods: Patients diagnosed with MS attending specialized MS units were invited to answer an online survey if they also experienced headache. Results: The study included 746 complete responses from patients with MS and headache. There were 625 women and 121 men, and 69% of all the patients were aged between 20 and 40 years. Migraine was identified in 404 patients (54.1%) and a moderate-to-high burden of disease was observed in 68.3% of the patients. Conclusion: Migraine is a frequent and disabling type of primary headache reported by patients with MS.
In this work, the gas diffusion electrode (GDE) cathode of Vulcan XC72 carbon modified with nanoparticles of WO2.72 (WO2.72 / Vulcan XC72) was used for H2O2 electrogeneration and degradation of 350 mL of Orange II (OII) and Sunset Yellow FCF (SY) azo dyes by electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) processes with different Fe2+ initial content (1.00, 0.50 and 0.25 mmol L-1). The WO2.72 / Vulcan XC72 GDE electrolyzed approximately 3 times more H2O2 than the Vulcan XC72 GDE. Decolorizations and mineralizations of the dye solutions were more efficient at higher concentrations of Fe2+. The decolorization decay showed pseudo-first-order kinetics. The most promising decolorization results obtained at processes of WO2.72 / Vulcan XC72 cathode combined with Pt anode (100% color removal of OII and SY at 30 and 20 min of electrolysis with 1.00 mmol L-1 Fe2+, respectively). The best mineralization achieved in trials of WO2.72 / Vulcan XC72 cathode combined with boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode (82% total organic carbon (TOC) removal of OII by PEF / 1.00 after 3 h and 90% TOC removal of SY by PEF / 0.50 after 4 h). It was found that SY decolorization was faster and mineralization showed a similar yield independent of oxidized dye.
Cellulose derivatives still receive special attention in today biomedical applications due to their biocompatibility, ability to form resistant membranes and compatibility with various bioactive agents. In this work, cellulose acetate (CA) was used to prepare membranes with different morphologies aiming to evaluate the release profile of the drug ibuprofen (IBF). The IBF incorporation was performed by the addition of 10% of the drug in an 8% (w/w) CA/acetone solution. The morphology of the membranes was modified by the addition of water, used as porogenic agent. Drug release assays showed the effect of morphology on the cumulative drug release curves. The symmetric membrane exhibited retention of significant amounts of the drug and a slow release process that lasted for more than 50 hours. The asymmetric porous membranes presented different behavior with greater amount of drug released in less time of release. The kinetic parameters calculated from the Higuchi and Korsmeyer/Peppas models indicated release profiles controlled by diffusion/solution process in the polymer matrix. The results revealed that the interactions established between IBF, CA and the matrix morphology are significant factors for the kinetic control of the drug release process and enable to choose different applications of the membranes loaded with IBF.