ABSTRACT Drought and soil salinity are the main abiotic stresses in semiarid regions of the world. This study aims to evaluate the effect of water tensions generated by the reduction of soil moisture and salt on the leaf water potential of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp). The experiments were conducted in a randomized complete block design, with a 6 × 2 factorial arrangement consisted of six soil water tensions (0.025, 0.265, 0.485, 0.705, 0.925, and 1.145 MPa) and two tension sources (water deficit and salt), with four replications. Two experiments were performed with the same environmental conditions to evaluate the influence of the tensions on vegetative and reproductive stages. Water and osmotic potentials, relative water content, leaf succulence, and shoot biomass yield were evaluated. Soil water tension was not the main factor of changes on water and osmotic potentials of V. unguiculata plants; the water deficit treatments at soil water tensions of up to 1.145 MPa did not reduce the water and osmotic potentials either at the vegetative or flowering phenological stages; high correlations were found between shoot biomass yield and the leaf water potential at seven days after stress. The osmotic potential was the main indicator of stress in plants at the vegetative and flowering stages subjected to water deficit by the presence of salts in the soil solution.
ABSTRACT Abstract: Brown eye spot is one of the major diseases that affect coffee seedling growth for causing defoliation and reducing the plant growth. The disease severity is higher when the coffee plant is subjected to water deficit. Using irrigation is an alternative to minimize the damage caused by this disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of this disease on the physiology of coffee plants as a function of the reduction in the irrigation level. The plants were subjected to three irrigation levels (0.1, 0.6 and 1.2 mm.day-1), inoculated and not inoculated with Cercospora coffeicola, in a completely randomized design with 35 replicates, totaling 210 experimental units. Coffee seedlings showing brown eye spot presented reductions in the minimum water potential and in photosynthesis as a function of the lower irrigation level, except for the irrigation level 0.6 mm.day-1. The activity of the antioxidant system in diseased seedlings was only higher under higher irrigation levels. Results proved that the presence of the disease increased water stress in coffee seedlings for reducing both water potential and efficient water use.
RESUMO Cercosporiose é uma das principais doenças que comprometem o crescimento de mudas de café por causar desfolha e redução no crescimento. A doença apresenta maior severidade quando o cafeeiro está submetido ao déficit hídrico. O uso de irrigação é uma alternativa para minimizar os danos causados pela doença. Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar o impacto da doença na fisiologia do cafeeiro em função da redução da lâmina de irrigação. As plantas foram submetidas a três lâminas de irrigação (0.1, 0.6 e 1.2 mm.dia-1); inoculadas e não inoculadas com C. coffeicola, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com 35 repetições, totalizando 210 unidades experimentais. As mudas de cafeeiro com cercosporiose apresentaram reduções no potencial hídrico mínimo e na fotossíntese em função da lâmina de irrigação, com excessão da lâmina de irrigação com 0,6 mm.dia-1. A atividade do sistema antioxidante foi superior nas mudas doentes apenas na maior irrigação. Os resultados comprovaram que a presença da doença incrementou o estresse hídrico nas mudas de café por reduzir o potencial hídrico e uso eficiente de água.
To evaluate physiological genotypic differences between two Barbados cherry genotypes (13- and 14-CPA) under water deficit, initial growth, water relations, and organic solute accumulation were evaluated in an experiment performed using four-month-old seedlings, which were subjected to four water treatments (100, 75, 50, and 25% of field capacity), with five replications. Severe water deficit (25% of field capacity) negatively affected plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, dry matter of the leaves and stem to both genotypes, and root dry matter to genotype 13-CPA. Predawn (Ywpd) and midday leaf water potentials (Ywmd) were reduced in plants grown under 25% of field capacity, only in the genotype 14-CPA. There was not a change in relative water content, even with the reduction in the leaf water potential. Severe water deficit did not induce organic solutes accumulation, instead it reduced carbohydrate content in leaves of genotypes and aminoacids, proline and proteins, in genotype 13-CPA. In the roots accumulation of all organic solutes studied, it was verified genotype 13-CPA under 25% of field capacity, but only carbohydrates increased in plants under 25% of field capacity to 14-CPA. These results suggest two different mechanisms used by Barbados cherry genotypes to maintain the water status. To the 13-CPA one, the accumulation of soluble organic solutes in the roots is the main mechanism used to maintain the tissue hydration. However, the 14-CPA genotype changed the root to shoot ratio in order to avoid desiccation. Despite the mechanism used by both genotypes, a moderate drought stress does not induce significant morphophysiological changes in Barbados cherry.