Food contamination caused by enteric pathogens is a major cause of diarrheal disease worldwide, resulting in high morbidity and mortality and significant economic losses. Bacteria are important agents of foodborne diseases, particularly diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. The present study assessed the genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of E. coli isolates from pasteurized milk processed in 21 dairies in northwestern State of Parana, Brazil. The 95 E. coli isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing according to the recommendations of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and assessed genotypically by Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus-Polymerase Chain Reaction (ERIC-PCR). The highest rate of resistance was observed for cephalothin (55.78%). ERIC-PCR revealed high genetic diversity, clustering the 95 bacterial isolates into 90 different genotypic patterns. These results showed a heterogeneous population of E. coli in milk samples produced in the northwestern region of Paraná and the need for good manufacturing practices throughout the processing of pasteurized milk to reduce the risk of foodborne illnesses.
A contaminação de alimentos por patógenos entéricos é uma das principais causas de doenças diarréicas em todo o mundo, resultando em altas taxas de morbidade e mortalidade e perdas econômicas significativas. As bactérias são importantes agentes de doenças de origem alimentar, particularmente Escherichia coli diarreiogênicas. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a diversidade genética e a resistência a antimicrobianos de E. coli isoladas de leite pasteurizado, processados em 21 laticínios na região noroeste do Paraná - Brasil. Os 95 isolados de E. coli foram submetidos a testes de suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos de acordo com as recomendações do Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute e avaliados genotipicamente por ERIC-PCR (Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus - Polymerase Chain Reaction). O principal perfil de resistência encontrado entre os isolados foi resistência à cefalotina (55,78%). ERIC-PCR revelou alta diversidade genética, agrupando os 95 isolados bacterianos em 90 diferentes perfis genotípicos. Estes resultados mostraram uma população heterogênea de E. coli em amostras de leite produzido na região noroeste do Paraná e a necessidade de boas práticas na manipulação de todo o processamento de leite pasteurizado, a fim de reduzir o risco de doenças transmitidas por alimentos.
In Brazil and other regions of the world, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. have emerged as important agents of nosocomial infection and are commonly involved in outbreaks. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the genetic relationship among P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. isolated from patients in a public university hospital in northwestern Paraná, Brazil, and report their antimicrobial resistance profile. A total of 75 P. aeruginosa and 94 Acinetobacter spp. isolates were phenotypically identified and tested for antibiotic susceptibility using automated methodology. Polymyxin B was tested by disk diffusion for P. aeruginosa. Metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) was detected using a disk approximation test. Genotyping was performed using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR). Approximately 55% of the P. aeruginosa isolates and 92% of the Acinetobacter spp. isolates were multiresistant, but none were MBL-producers. ERIC-PCR revealed the presence of small clusters of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp., most likely OXA-type carbapenemase producers. Furthermore, high genetic diversity in P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. clinical isolates was observed, suggesting that cross-transmission is not very frequent in the studied hospital.
No Brasil, bem como em outras regiões do mundo, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Acinetobacter spp. surgiram como importantes agentes de infecção nosocomial e são comumente envolvidos em surtos. O objetivo principal deste estudo foi descrever a relação genética de P. aeruginosa e Acinetobacter spp. isoladas de pacientes internados em hospital universitário público do noroeste do Paraná - Brasil e reportar o perfil de resistência dessas bactérias. Um total de 75 P. aeruginosa e 94 Acinetobacter spp. isolados foi fenotipicamente identificado e testado para a suscetibilidade aos antibióticos por metodologia automatizada. A polimixina B foi testada por difusão em disco para P. aeruginosa. Metalo-β-lactamase (MBL) foi detectada por disco-aproximação. Análise genotípica foi realizada por enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR). Aproximadamente 55% dos isolados de P. aeruginosa e 92% de Acinetobacter spp. isolados foram multirresistentes, mas nenhum foi produtor de MBL. Os resultados de ERIC-PCR revelaram pequenos grupamentos de Acinetobacter spp. resistentes aos carbapenêmicos, provavelmente pela produção de carbapenemases do tipo OXA. Além disso, alta diversidade genética entre os isolados de P. aeruginosa e Acinetobacter spp. foi observada, sugerindo que a transmissão cruzada destas espécies bacterianas não é muito frequente em nosso hospital.
INTRODUCTION: Rhodococcus equi is an opportunistic pathogen, causing rhodococcosis, a condition that can be confused with tuberculosis. Often, without identifying M. tuberculosis, physicians initiate empiric treatment for tuberculosis. R. equi and M. tuberculosis have different susceptibility to drugs. Identification of R. equi is based on a variety of phenotypic, chromatographic, and genotypic characteristics. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to characterize bacterial isolates from sputum samples suggestive of R. equi. METHODS: The phenotypic identification included biochemical assays; thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used for genotypic identification. RESULTS: Among 78 Gram-positive and partially acid-fast bacilli isolated from the sputum of tuberculosis-suspected patients, 51 were phenotypically and genotypically characterized as R. equi based on literature data. Mycolic acid analysis showed that all suspected R. equi had compounds with a retention factor (Rf) between 0.4-0.5. Genotypic characterization indicated the presence of the choE gene 959 bp fragments in 51 isolates CAMP test positive. Twenty-two CAMP test negative isolates were negative for the choE gene. Five isolates presumptively identified as R. equi, CAMP test positive, were choE gene negative, and probably belonged to other bacterial species. CONCLUSIONS: The phenotypic and molecular techniques used constitute a good methodological tool to identify R. equi.
Our purpose was to determine the anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of the metabolites produced by the endophitic fungus Phomopsis stipata (Lib.) B. Sutton, (Diaporthaceae), cultivated in different media. The antimycobacterial activity was assessed through the Resazurin Microtiter Assay (REMA) and the cytotoxicity test performed on macrophage cell line. The extracts derived from fungi grown on Corn Medium and Potato Dextrose Broth presented the smallest values of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and low cytotoxicity, which implies a high selectivity index. This is the first report on the chemical composition and antitubercular activity of metabolites of P. stipata, as well as the influence of culture medium on these properties.
We report a comparative study of two DNA extraction techniques, thermolysis and chemical lysis (CTAB), for molecular identification and genotyping of M. tuberculosis. Forty DNA samples were subjected to PCR and the results demonstrated that with thermolysis it is possible to obtain useful data that enables fast identification and genotyping.
The purpose of this study was to provide information about the genetic diversity and prevalent genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a low-endemic setting in northwestern state of Paraná in Southern Brazil. We employed spoligotyping and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) techniques to genotype M. tuberculosisisolates from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). The 93 isolates analyzed by spoligotyping were divided into 36 different patterns, 30 of which were described in the SITVIT database. Latin American and Mediterranean, Haarlem and T families were responsible for 26.9%, 17.2% and 11.8% of TB cases, respectively. From the 84 isolates analyzed by MIRU-VNTR, 58 shared a unique pattern and the remaining 26 belonged to nine clusters. The MIRU loci 40, 23, 10 and 16 were the most discriminatory. A combination of MIRU-VNTR and spoligotyping resulted in 85.7% discriminatory power (Hunter-Gaston index = 0.995). Thus, combining spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing proved to be most useful for epidemiological study in this low-endemic setting in Southern Brazil. The current study demonstrated that there is significant diversity in circulating strains in the city of Maringá and the surrounding regions, with no single genotype of M. tuberculosispredominating.
Rhodococcus equi has emerged as an opportunistic pathogen associated with pulmonary, invasive or systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. We report the identification of 51 R. equi isolates found in sputum samples of 546 individuals suspected to have pulmonary tuberculosis in two Public Health Hospital Units in Brazil. The epidemiology of R. equi infection as well as the phenotypic identification and drug susceptibility profile of isolates are described in this paper.