The first 1000 days of life constitute a short and exceptionally important period when the foundation is established for children’s growth, development and lifelong health. Cuba has a comprehensive care system for this population that aims to promote the best start in life so that children can reach their highest development potential. This is carried out through the national public health and education systems and also includes elements of health protection, prevention of harm and disease and social welfare for children. Cuba’s infant mortality rate has remained <5 deaths per 1000 live births for 10 consecutive years, and in 2017 reached 4 per 1000, the lowest rate to date. The mortality rate for children aged <5 years in 2017 was 5.5 per 1000 live births, with a survival rate of 99.5%; low birth weight was 5.1% and vaccination coverage >95%. Among children aged 1 year in Cuba’s Educate Your Child program in 2014, >90% met age-specific indicators in all four developmental domains (intellectual, motor, socioaffective and language). Cuba has universal coverage for antenatal care and, in 2017, 99.9% of births occurred in health institutions. All working mothers receive paid antenatal leave from 34 weeks of gestation, continued through the child’s first year, to facilitate breastfeeding and child care. In 2018, the Cuban government allocated 27% of its national budget to health and social welfare and 21% to education.
ABSTRACT In the laboratory (T = 24,02 ± 0,24°C; HR=82,52 ± 0,72%) and with different feeding, the cuticle color and ornamentation were determined in the last instar of Chloridea virescens Fab., from a cohort of 60 F1. Leaves of tobacco were used (main host), pigeon pea pods and rose petals (alternative hosts) were used for feeding. Duration of the larval phase and development, the sexual relationship, and the total natural mortality were taken into account. The results showed that C. virescens in tobacco had a wide phenotypic variability. Six coloration and ornamentation patterns, with a higher frequency of the yellowish coloration, were described on this host. The sister larvae feeding on rose and pigeon pea were grayish with a similar ornamentation; however, as a possible effect of the change of food, the mortality reported on these two host plants was higher than 50 %. Nevertheless, the larvae completed the development cycle on the three hosts and showed a high morphological variability on tobacco; it was also confirmed that the population agreed with C. virescens.
RESUMEN Se determinó, en condiciones de laboratorio (T= 24,02 ± 0,24°C; HR=82,52 ± 0,72 %) y con diferente alimentación, el color y la ornamentación cuticular en el último instar de Chloridea virescens Fab., a partir de una cohorte de 60 larvas F1. Para la alimentación, se utilizaron hojas de tabaco (hospedante principal), legumbres de gandul y pétalos de rosa (hospedantes alternativos). Se tuvo en cuenta la duración de la fase larval y del desarrollo, así como la relación sexual y la mortalidad natural total. Los resultados demostraron que C. virescens en tabaco tiene una amplia variabilidad fenotípica. Se describen seis patrones de coloración y ornamentación sobre este hospedante, con una frecuencia mayor de coloraciones amarillentas. Cuando las larvas hermanas se alimentaron de rosa y gandul, exhibieron una coloración grisácea y ornamentación semejante. La mortalidad natural fue superior al 50 % en estos dos hospedantes, como un posible efecto del cambio de alimento. No obstante, las larvas completaron el ciclo de desarrollo sobre los tres hospedantes y mostraron una alta variabilidad morfológica sobre tabaco; además, se confirmó que la población se correspondió con C. virescens.