RESUMEN La primera erosión de la democracia en Latinoamérica no ocurrió en el siglo XX; ocurrió en el siglo XIX. Argumentaré que, para la década de 1850, había surgido una cultura política vibrante y democrática en México y Colombia. Sin embargo, en la década de 1870, un movimiento político que unía a liberales y conservadores empezó a sospechar que las políticas democráticas que antes consideraban modernas estaban, en realidad, entorpeciendo el progreso de la sociedad. La democracia no estaba promoviendo, sino, por el contrario, obstaculizando el progreso económico. Este ensayo explorará la relación histórica entre capitalismo (a medida que Latinoamérica entraba en un periodo de crecimiento capitalista orientado a la exportación) y democracia (en un siglo XIX en el que la mayoría de las repúblicas del mundo estaban en Latinoamérica).
RESUMO O primeiro declínio da democracia na América Latina não ocorreu no século XX, mas sim no XIX. Nesse sentido, argumento que, em 1850, uma cultura política vibrante e democrática surgiu no México e na Colômbia; contudo, na década de 1870, um movimento político que unia liberais e conservadores começou a suspeitar que as políticas democráticas que antes eram consideradas modernas na realidade estavam impedindo o progresso da sociedade. A democracia não estava promovendo, mas sim o contrário, obstaculizando o progresso econômico. Este ensaio explora a relação histórica entre o capitalismo (à medida que a América Latina entrou em um período de crescimento capitalista orientado à exportação) e a democracia (em um século XIX em que a maioria das repúblicas do mundo estava nessa região).
ABSTRACT The first erosion of democracy in Latin America did not occur in the twentieth-century, but, rather, the nineteenth. I will argue that in Mexico and Colombia a vibrant, democratic political culture had emerged by the 1850s; however, by the 1870s, a political movement that united Liberals and Conservatives began to suspect that the democratic politics they had once regarded as making them modern was instead hindering their societies’ progress. Democracy was not promoting, but, rather, hindering economic progress. This essay will explore the historic relation between capitalism (as Latin America entered into a period of export-oriented capitalist growth) and democracy (in a nineteenth century in which most of the world’s republics were in Latin America).
The objectives of this study were to 1) compare four models for breeding value prediction using genomic or pedigree information and 2) evaluate the impact of fixed effects that account for family structure. Comparisons were made in a Nellore-Angus population comprising F2, F3 and half-siblings to embryo transfer F2 calves with records for overall temperament at weaning (TEMP; n = 769) and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF; n = 387). After quality control, there were 34,913 whole genome SNP markers remaining. Bayesian methods employed were BayesB ( π = 0.995 or 0.997 for WBSF or TEMP, respectively) and BayesC (π = 0 and π), where π is the ideal proportion of markers not included. Direct genomic values (DGV) from single trait Bayesian analyses were compared to conventional pedigree-based animal model breeding values. Numerically, BayesC procedures (using π) had the highest accuracy of all models for WBSF and TEMP ( ρgg = 0.843 and 0.923, respectively), but BayesB had the least bias (regression of performance on prediction closest to 1, βy,x = 2.886 and 1.755, respectively). Accounting for family structure decreased accuracy and increased bias in prediction of DGV indicating a detrimental impact when used in these prediction methods that simultaneously fit many markers.
Gestation length, birth weight, and weaning weight of F2 Nelore-Angus calves (n = 737) with designed extensive full-sibling and half-sibling relatedness were evaluated for association with 34,957 SNP markers. In analyses of birth weight, random relatedness was modeled three ways: 1) none, 2) random animal, pedigree-based relationship matrix, or 3) random animal, genomic relationship matrix. Detected birth weight-SNP associations were 1,200, 735, and 31 for those parameterizations respectively; each additional model refinement removed associations that apparently were a result of the built-in stratification by relatedness. Subsequent analyses of gestation length and weaning weight modeled genomic relatedness; there were 40 and 26 trait-marker associations detected for those traits, respectively. Birth weight associations were on BTA14 except for a single marker on BTA5. Gestation length associations included 37 SNP on BTA21, 2 on BTA27 and one on BTA3. Weaning weight associations were on BTA14 except for a single marker on BTA10. Twenty-one SNP markers on BTA14 were detected in both birth and weaning weight analyses.