Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the pattern of pediatric dermatoses of patients evaluated at a dermatologic clinic of a reference center in Brazil and to compare these results to similar surveys conducted in other countries. Methods: A retrospective study was performed of patients up to 18 years old, evaluated at a dermatologic clinic between January 1, 2017 and December 31, 2017. Variables collected for analysis included age, gender, dermatological diagnosis, multidisciplinary follow-up, hospitalization, and complementary exams. Results: A total of 2330 patients were included for analysis, with a mean age of 9.7 years. 295 patients were diagnosed with more than one skin disease, leading to a total of 2668 diagnoses. Skin diseases were organized into categories and inflammatory dermatoses corresponded to the largest group (31.2%), mostly due to atopic dermatitis (18.3%). The other main categories were: genodermatoses (14.2%), infectious diseases (12.6%), adnexal disorders (12.5%), cysts and neoplasms (10.7%), and vascular disorders (7.0%). Fifty-six patients needed to be admitted to the dermatology ward; 25 of them (44.6%) for management of worsening of the skin disease, mainly atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and drug reactions. There were 885 biopsies performed in 38.0% of the subjects and 751 patients (32.2%) required multidisciplinary care; most of them had some genodermatoses. Conclusions: Dermatologic disorders are very common in the pediatric age group and differ from those in adults, suffering influence from cultural, ethnic, socioeconomic, and environmental factors. Knowing the magnitude and distribution of these dermatoses is important to better plan healthcare policies.
Abstract: Infantile hemangioma can be linked to other organ malformations. In 1996, PHACE syndrome was first defined as the association of large and segmental infantile hemangioma, usually on the face, head, or cervical region, with malformations of the posterior fossa of the brain, arterial anomalies of the central nervous system, coarctation of the aorta, cardiac defects, and ocular abnormalities. Over 300 cases of PHACE syndrome have been reported, and it is cconsidered one of the most common neurocutaneous vascular disorders in childhood. Knowledge of the features and locations of lesions that imply a greater risk of systemic involvement is crucial for the diagnosis and proper management of PHACE syndrome patients. This review highlights the diagnostic criteria for PHACE syndrome, the imaging workup for extracutaneous involvement, the treatment of infantile hemangioma, and the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in the management of these patients.
Abstract: Tuberous sclerosis complex is a multisystemic, autosomal dominant genetic disorder with complete penetrance, that can evolve with hamartomas in multiple organs, such as skin, central nervous system, kidney and lung. Due to the wide phenotypic variability, the disease is often not recognized. Tuberous sclerosis complex affects one in 10,000 newborns and most patients are diagnosed during the first 15 months of life. The diagnostic criteria for tuberous sclerosis were reviewed in 2012, at the second International Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Consensus Conference. The diagnosis is based on genetic criteria, by the identification of inactivating pathogenic mutation of tumor suppressor genes TSC1 and TSC2, and clinical criteria, including cutaneous, renal, pulmonary, cardiac and neurological manifestations. The treatment of tuberous sclerosis complex consists, mainly, in management of the symptoms caused by hamartomas and in prevention of organ failure. Multidisciplinary approach is recommended, in order to obtain better clinical outcomes.
Abstract: Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex pathogenesis, where changes in skin barrier and imbalance of the immune system are relevant factors. The skin forms a mechanic and immune barrier, regulating water loss from the internal to the external environment, and protecting the individual from external aggressions, such as microorganisms, ultraviolet radiation and physical trauma. Main components of the skin barrier are located in the outer layers of the epidermis (such as filaggrin), the proteins that form the tight junction (TJ) and components of the innate immune system. Recent data involving skin barrier reveal new information regarding its structure and its role in the mechanic-immunological defense; atopic dermatitis (AD) is an example of a disease related to dysfunctions associated with this complex.
Abstract: Background: Knowledge of epidemiological data on skin diseases is important in planning preventive strategies in healthcare services. Objective: To assess data from patients admitted to a triage dermatology clinic. Methods: A retrospective study was performed of patients admitted over a one-year period to the Triage Dermatology Clinic at the Hospital das Clínicas of the University of São Paulo Medical School. Data were obtained from record books. The variables analyzed were: patient age, gender, dermatologic disease (initial diagnosis), origin (from where the patient was referred) and destination (where the patient was referred to). Results: A total of 16,399 patients and 17,454 diseases were identified for analysis. The most frequent skin disorders were eczema (18%), cutaneous infections (13.1%), erythematous squamous diseases (6.8%) and malignant cutaneous neoplasms (6.1%). Atopic dermatitis was the most common disease in children. Acne was more common among children and adults, as were viral warts. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma were more common in the elderly. Contact dermatitis and acne predominated in women. The most frequent origins were: the primary/secondary health system (26.6%), other outpatient specialties (25.5%), emergency care (14.9%); while the destinations were: discharged (27.5%), follow-up in our Dermatology Division (24.1%), return (14.1%) and the primary/secondary health system (20.7%). Conclusion: Understanding the incidence of skin diseases is fundamental in making decisions regarding resource allocation for clinical care and research. Thus, we believe our findings can contribute to improving public health policies.
Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection.
FUNDAMENTO: El reflujo de prótesis valvular es una posible complicación de la cirugía de reemplazo valvular. Aunque raras, sus consecuencias pueden resultar severas. Hay pocos estudios que correlacionan el grado del reflujo de prótesis valvular con los eventos clínicos de los pacientes. OBJETIVO: Comparar la evolución postoperatoria de pacientes con reflujo de prótesis valvular leve/moderado (L/M) o severo (S). MÉTODOS: Teniendo en cuenta a los 1.350 pacientes sometidos a la cirugía valvular entre el 1999 y el 2001, se seleccionaron a 185 pacientes con reflujo de prótesis valvular. De ellos, se evaluaron retrospectivamente datos clínicos, laboratoriales y ecocardiográficos de una muestra de 58 pacientes (37 varones) con reflujo de prótesis valvular en el pre y/o en el postoperatorio de reemplazo valvular con datos completos en prontuarios, con 36 presentado reflujo L/M versus 22 con reflujo S. RESULTADOS: La incidencia de reoperación fue del 11,1% en el Grupo L/M versus el 22,7% en el Grupo S (odds ratio = 2,35 [IC95% 0,56-9,94]). La Endocarditis fue la causa de reoperación en el 75% de los pacientes del Grupo L/M y en el 60% del Grupo S. Las bioprótesis aórticas fueron las más afectadas por reflujo (el 55,8% en el Grupo L/M y el 57,7% en el Grupo S). Evolucionaron sin reflujo de prótesis valvular en el segundo postoperatorio el 40% de los pacientes con reflujo previo L/M versus el 21,4% de los pacientes con reflujo de prótesis valvular S. No hubo diferencia significantes en las variables laboratoriales. CONCLUSIÓN: 1) Los portadores de reflujo severo tienen mayor probabilidad de reoperación. 2) Endocarditis fue la causa más frecuente de reoperación para cualquier grado de reflujo. 3) El reflujo de prótesis valvular severo es de más difícil resolución completa tras tratamiento quirúrgico.
BACKGROUND: Prosthetic valve leak is a possible complication of surgical valve replacement. Although uncommon, its consequences may be serious. Few studies correlate the degree of prosthetic valve leak with clinical events. OBJECTIVE: To compare the postoperative outcome of patients with mild/moderate (Mi/Mo) or severe (Sev) prosthetic valve leak METHODS: A total of 185 patients with prosthetic valve leak were selected among 1350 patients undergoing heart valve surgery between 1999 and 2001. Of these, a sample of 58 patients (37 men) with prosthetic valve leak (36 with Mi/Mo versus 22 with Sev leak) in the pre and/or postoperative period of heart valve replacement had complete medical record data, so their clinical, laboratory and echocardiographic data could be retrospectively assessed. RESULTS: The incidence of reoperation was 11.1% in the Mi/Mo group, versus 22.7% in the Sev group (odds ratio = 2.35 [95% CI 0.56-9.94]). Endocarditis was the cause of reoperation in 75% of the patients of the Mi/Mo group and in 60% of the Sev group. Aortic bioprostheses were those most frequently related to leak (55.8% in the Mi/Mo group and 57.7% in the Sev group). Forty percent of the patients with previous Mi/Mo leak did not present prosthetic valve leak on postoperative day 2 versus 21.4% of the patients with Sev prosthetic valve leak. No significant differences were found regarding laboratory variables. CONCLUSIONS: (1) Patients with severe leak are more likely to undergo reoperation. (2) Endocarditis was the most frequent cause of reoperation for any leak degree. (3) Severe prosthetic valve leak is more difficult to fully resolve after surgical treatment.
FUNDAMENTO: O refluxo de prótese valvar é uma possível complicação da cirurgia de troca valvar. Embora raro, suas consequências podem ser graves. Há poucos estudos que correlacionam o grau do refluxo de prótese valvar com os eventos clínicos dos pacientes. OBJETIVO: Comparar a evolução pós-operatória de pacientes com refluxo de prótese valvar discreto/moderado (D/M) ou importante (Imp). MÉTODOS: Dentre 1.350 pacientes submetidos a cirurgia valvar entre 1999 e 2001, foram selecionados 185 pacientes com refluxo de prótese valvar. Desses pacientes, foram avaliados retrospectivamente dados clínicos, laboratoriais e ecocardiográficos de uma amostra de 58 pacientes (37 homens) com refluxo de prótese valvar no pré e/ou no pós-operatório de troca valvar com dados completos em prontuários, sendo 36 com refluxo D/M versus 22 com refluxo Imp. RESULTADOS: A incidência de reoperação foi de 11,1% no Grupo D/M versus 22,7% no Grupo Imp (odds ratio = 2,35 [IC95% 0,56-9,94]). Endocardite foi a causa de reoperação em 75% dos pacientes do Grupo D/M e em 60% do Grupo Imp. As biopróteses aórticas foram as mais acometidas por refluxo (55,8% no Grupo D/M e 57,7% no Grupo Imp). Evoluíram sem refluxo de prótese valvar no segundo pós-operatório 40% dos pacientes com refluxo prévio D/M versus 21,4% dos pacientes com refluxo de prótese valvar Imp. Não houve diferenças significantes nas variáveis laboratoriais. CONCLUSÕES: (1) Os portadores de refluxo importante têm maior probabilidade de reoperação. (2) Endocardite foi a causa mais frequente de reoperação para qualquer grau de refluxo. (3) O refluxo de prótese valvar importante é de mais difícil resolução completa após tratamento cirúrgico.