Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of terpinen-4-ol, tyrosol, and β-lapachone against strains of Coccidioides posadasii in filamentous phase (n = 22) and Histoplasma capsulatum in both filamentous (n = 40) and yeast phases (n = 13), using the broth dilution methods as described by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of these compounds. The mechanisms of action of these compounds were also investigated by analyzing their effect on cell membrane permeability and ergosterol synthesis. The MIC and MFCf these compounds against C. posadasii, mycelial H. capsulatum, and yeast-like H. capsulatum, were in the following ranges: 350-5720 µg/mL, 20-2860 µg/mL, and 40-1420 µg/mL, respectively for terpinen-4-ol; 250-4000 µg/mL, 30-2000 µg/mL, and 10-1000 µg/mL, respectively, for tyrosol; and 0.48-7.8 µg/mL, 0.25-16 µg/mL, and 0.125-4 µg/mL, respectively for β-lapachone. These compounds showed a decrease in MIC when the samples were subjected to osmotic stress, suggesting that the compounds acted on the fungal membrane. All the compounds were able to reduce the ergosterol content of the fungal strains. Finally, tyrosol was able to cause a leakage of intracellular molecules.
ABSTRACTThe antifungal activity of some statins against different fungal species has been reported. Thus, at the first moment, the in vitro antifungal activity of simvastatin, atorvastatin and pravastatin was tested againstCandida spp. and Cryptococcus spp. Then, in a second approach, considering that the best results were obtained for simvastatin, this drug was evaluated in combination with antifungal drugs against planktonic growth and tested against biofilms ofCandida spp. and Cryptococcus spp. Drug susceptibility testing was performed using the microdilution broth method, as described by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The interaction between simvastatin and antifungals against planktonic cells was analyzed by calculating the fractional inhibitory concentration index. Regarding biofilm susceptibility, simvastatin was tested against growing biofilm and mature biofilm of one strain of each tested yeast species. Simvastatin showed inhibitory effect against Candida spp. andCryptococcus spp. with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 15.6 to 1000 mg L-1 and from 62.5 to 1000 mg L-1, respectively. The combination of simvastatin with itraconazole and fluconazole showed synergism against Candidaspp. and Cryptococcus spp., while the combination of simvastatin with amphotericin B was synergistic only againstCryptococcus spp. Concerning the biofilm assays, simvastatin was able to inhibit both growing biofilm and mature biofilm ofCandida spp. and Cryptococcus spp. The present study showed that simvastatin inhibits planktonic cells and biofilms ofCandida and Cryptococcus species.
CONTEXTO: O Diabetes Mellitus (DM) é fator de risco para a doença arterial obstrutiva periférica (DAOP). A prevalência de DAOP no DM tipo 2 (T2) e o prejuízo adicional causado por esta na qualidade de vida (QoL) e na atividade física (AF) não são bem descritos na população brasileira. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a prevalência e a associação da DAOP recém-diagnosticada com a QoL, a AF e a composição corporal em pacientes T2DM provenientes de um hospital universitário. MÉTODOS: Setenta e três pacientes T2DM, sem complicações maiores relacionadas ao T2DM, foram incluídos. A DAOP foi avaliada pelo índice tornozelo-braquial (ITB); a QoL, pelo questionário traduzido e validado SF-36, e a AF, pelo questionário modificado de Baecke. A composição corporal foi avaliada pela impedância bioelétrica segmentar multifrequencial. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de DAOP foi 13,7%, predominantemente de severidade leve (ITB entre 0,8-0,9). O ITB correlacionou-se com a idade (ρ= -0,26; P= 0,03), a duração do DM (ρ=-0,28; P=0,02) e a pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica (ρ= -0,33; P= 0,007 e ρ= -0,28; P= 0,02; respectivamente). O sumário de saúde física (PCS) do questionário SF-36 estava abaixo da variação normal; contudo, nenhum impacto negativo da DAOP foi identificado no PCS (ABI normal = 42,9±11,2 vs. ABI-DAOP = 38,12±11,07) ou no nível de AF. A análise da composição corporal demonstrou gordura corporal excessiva, especialmente em mulheres; contudo, sem diferenças entre grupos. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de DAOP sem diagnóstico prévio nesta amostra de pacientes T2DM foi de 13,7%, predominantemente assintomática e leve, e ainda não associada com piores índices de QoL, nível de AF e composição corporal.
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Neither the prevalence of PAD in type 2 (T2) DM nor its detrimental effects on quality of life (QoL) or physical activity (PA) have been well described in the Brazilian population. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of newly diagnosed PAD and its associations with QoL, PA and body composition in a sample of T2DM patients from a University Hospital. METHODS: Seventy-three (73) T2DM patients without previous diagnoses of major complications related to T2DM were enrolled. PAD was assessed using the ankle-brachial index (ABI); QoL was measured using a translated and validated SF-36 questionnaire; PA was measured using a modified Baecke questionnaire; and body composition was measured by segmental multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance. RESULTS: PAD prevalence was 13.7%, predominantly of mild severity (ABI between 0.8-0.9). The ABI results correlated with age (ρ=-0.26, P=0.03), DM duration (ρ=-0.28, P=0.02) and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (ρ=-0.33, P=0.007 and ρ=-0.28, P=0.02; respectively). Scores for the SF-36 physical component summary (PCS) were below the normal range, but no negative impact from PAD was identified by the PCS scores (normal-ABI 42.9±11.2 vs. PAD-ABI 38.12±11.07) or the Baecke PA results. Body composition analysis detected excessive body fat, especially in women, but there was no difference between groups. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of previously undiagnosed PAD in this population of T2DM patients was 13.7%, predominantly mild and asymptomatic forms, and was not yet associated with worsened QoL, PA levels or body composition variables.
Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade antifúngica de extratos de M. oleifera frente a fungos isolados de camarões, cultivados em água doce, e testar a toxicidade dos extratos em larvas de Macrobrachium amazonicum. Os extratos etanólicos de vagens, sementes, folhas, caules e flores e o extrato clorofórmico de flores de M. oleifera foram testados contra 14 cepas de Candida spp. e 10 cepas de Hortaea werneckii isolados da água de cultivo e do trato digestório de M. amazonicum. A atividade antifúngica foi determinada por microdiluição, com base nos documentos M27-A3 e M38-A2 do CLSI. A toxicidade foi avaliada por exposição das larvas de M. amazonicum a concentrações entre 10-1000 mg mL-1 dos extratos, realizando contagem de larvas mortas (CL50), após 24 horas. Os melhores resultados foram verificados com o extrato clorofórmico de flores, agindo frente a todas as cepas testadas, com concentrações inibitórias mínimas variando entre 0,019-2,5 mg mL-1. O extrato etanólico de folhas, flores e sementes agiu ante 22/24, 21/24 e 20/24 cepas, respectivamente. O extrato de vagens foi eficaz contra cepas de Candida spp. (14/24) e o extrato de caule apenas contra quatro cepas de H. werneckii (4/24). Os extratos de sementes, flores (fração clorofórmica), caules e folhas apresentaram baixa ou nenhuma toxicidade, enquanto que extratos de vagens e flores (fração etanólica) apresentaram toxicidade moderada. Assim, observou-se atividade antifúngica dos extratos em Candida spp . e H. werneckii com uma ampla margem de segurança para as larvas de M. amazonicum, demonstrando ser promissor para o manejo sustentável dos efluentes do cultivo de M. amazonicum
This study aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of M. oleifera extracts against fungi isolated from farmed prawns and test the toxicity of the extracts on larvae of Macrobrachium amazonicum. The ethanol extracts of pods, seeds, leaves, stems and flowers and chloroform extract of flowers of M. oleifera were tested against 14 strains of Candida spp. and 10 strains of Hortaea werneckii isolated from farming water and the digestive tract of M. amazonicum. Antifungal activity was determined by microdilution, based on the M27-A3 and M38-A2 CLSI documents. Toxicity was evaluated by exposing larvae of M. amazonicum at concentrations between 10-1000mg mL-1, counting dead larvae (CL50) after 24 hours. The best results were verified with the chloroform extract of flowers, acting against all tested strains, with MICs ranging from 0.019 to 2.5 mg mL-1. Ethanol extracts of leaves, flowers and seeds acted against 22/24, 21/24 and 20/24 strains, respectively. The extract of pods was only effective against strains of Candida spp. (14/24) and extract of stem only against four strains of H. werneckii (4/24). Extracts of seeds, flowers (chloroform fraction), stems and leaves showed low or no toxicity, whereas extracts of pods and flowers (ethanol fraction) showed moderate toxicity. Thus, the antifungal activity of these extracts agaisnt Candida spp. and H. werneckii was observed, a wide margin of safety for larvae of M. amazonicum, demonstrating to be promising for the sustainable management of effluents from M. amazonicum farming
In this cross-sectional study, mycobacteria specimens from 189 tuberculosis (TB) patients living in an urban area in Brazil were characterised from 2008-2010 using phenotypic and molecular speciation methods (pncA gene and oxyR pseudogene analysis). Of these samples, 174 isolates simultaneously grew on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) and Stonebrink (SB)-containing media and presented phenotypic and molecular profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, whereas 12 had molecular profiles of M. tuberculosis based on the DNA analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin wax-embedded tissue samples (paraffin blocks). One patient produced two sputum isolates, the first of which simultaneously grew on LJ and SB media and presented phenotypic and molecular profiles of M. tuberculosis, and the second of which only grew on SB media and presented phenotypic profiles of Mycobacterium bovis. One patient provided a bronchial lavage isolate, which simultaneously grew on LJ and SB media and presented phenotypic and molecular profiles of M. tuberculosis, but had molecular profiles of M. bovis from paraffin block DNA analysis, and one sample had molecular profiles of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis identified from two distinct paraffin blocks. Moreover, we found a low prevalence (1.6%) of M. bovis among these isolates, which suggests that local health service procedures likely underestimate its real frequency and that it deserves more attention from public health officials.