Abstract Purpose: Previous studies have questioned whether the triceps brachii muscle tendon (TBMT) has a double or single insertion on the ulna. Aiming to provide an answer, we describe the anatomy of the TBMT and review a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) series of the elbow. Methods: Forty-one elbows were dissected to assess the details of the triceps brachii insertion. Elbow plastination slices were analyzed to determine whether there was a space on the TBMT. Magnetic resonance imaging from the records of the authors were also obtained to demonstrate the appearance of the pre-tricipital space on MRI. Results: A virtual space on the medial aspect near the TBTM insertion site in the olecranon was consistently found on anatomic dissections. It was a distal pre-tricipital space. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the appearance of the pre-tricipital space on MRI, and its extension was measured longitudinally either in elbow flexion or extension. There was no statistically significant difference between the measurements of this space in the right and left elbows or between flexion and extension (p > 0.05). The coefficient of variation was <10% for all measurements. Conclusion: Knowledge of this structure may be essential to avoid incorrect diagnosis and unnecessary therapeutic interventions.
ABSTRACT Objective: to describe the presence of lymph nodes and their relationships with demographic and anthropometric characteristics in a specific region, not yet described in anatomy compendiums, called by us Recurrent Carotid Recess (RCR) and located among the right recurrent laryngeal nerve, the right common carotid artery, and the right inferior thyroid artery. Methods: 32 right cervical regions were harvested from cadavers within 24 hours post-mortem. The fibro-fatty tissue of the RCR was resected and prepared with formalin fixation. It was then subjected to an increasing sequence of alcohols (70%, 80%, and 90%), subsequently to a solution of Xylol, and finally to a solution of Methyl Salicylate, respecting the time required for each step. The macroscopic study was carried out on the diaphanized piece, observing the presence or not of lymph nodes. When present, they were photographed and their measurements were gauged with a digital caliper. In the microscopic study, hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to confirm the lymph node. Results: the presence of lymph nodes was observed in 22 (68.75%) of the 32 specimens. The number of lymph nodes ranged from zero to six (mean of 1.56±0.29), per cadaver, and their mean size was 7.82mmx3.86mm (longitudinal x transversal diameters). Conclusion: the relationship between anthropometric data and presence of lymph nodes in the RCR (Fisher’s exact test) was significant for medium-height individuals (p=0.03) and also white ones (p=0.04).
RESUMO Objetivo: descrever a presença de linfonodos e suas relações com características demográficas e antropométricas em uma região específica ainda não descrita pelos compêndios de anatomia, por nós denominada de Recesso Carotídeo Recorrencial (RCR), localizada entre o nervo laríngeo recorrente direito, a artéria carótida comum direita e a artéria tireoidea inferior direita. Métodos: foram dissecadas 32 regiões cervicais à direita de cadáveres com até 24 horas de post mortem. O tecido fibrogorduroso do RCR foi ressecado e preparado com fixação em formol. Em seguida, foi submetido a uma sequência crescente de álcoois (70%, 80% e 90%), posteriormente a uma solução de Xilol e, por fim, a uma solução de Salicilato de Metila, respeitando o tempo necessário de cada etapa. O estudo macroscópico foi realizado na peça diafanizada, observando a presença ou não de linfonodos. Quando presentes, foram fotografados e suas medidas foram aferidas com um paquímetro digital. No estudo microscópico, foi utilizada a coloração hematoxilina-eosina para confirmação do linfonodo. Resultados: observou-se a presença de linfonodos em 22 dos 32 espécimes (68,75%), com o número de linfonodos por cadáver variando de zero a seis (média de 1,56±0,29) e tamanho com média de 7,82mmx3,86mm (diâmetros longitudinal x transversal). Conclusão: a relação entre dados antropométricos e presença de linfonodos no RCR (teste exato de Fischer) foi significante para indivíduos normolíneos (p=0,03) e também significante entre a etnia branca (p=0,04).
PURPOSE:To describe an effective experimental model to study the Achilles tendon healing.METHODS:Forty male Rattus norvegicus albinus,Wistar lineage adult male weighing 250 to 300g were used for this experiment and thirty were surgically submitted to bilateral partial transverse section of the Achilles tendon. The right tendon was treated with radio waves (RF) whereas the left tendon served as control. On the third postoperative day, the rats were divided into four experimental groups consisting of ten rats each which were treated with monopolar RF adjusted to 650 kHz and 2w, for two minutes twice a week and a group of normal animals without any intervention, until they were sacrificed on the 7th, 14th and 28th days, respectively. Tendons were weighed and collagen quantification was evaluated by hydroxyprolin content.RESULTS:Significant reduction in collagen content on day 7, 14 and 28 was related to control experiment to normal tendon (7 days, p<0.01; 14 e 28 days, p<0.05).CONCLUSION:The experimental model has been effective and available to be used to study Achilles tendon healing.