OBJECTIVE: Despite advances in diffuse peritonitis treatment protocols, some cases develop unfavorably. With the advent of vacuum therapy, the use of laparostomy to treat peritonitis has gained traction. Another treatment modality is continuous peritoneal lavage. However, maintaining this technique is difficult and has been associated with controversial results. We propose a new model of continuous peritoneal lavage that takes advantage of the features and benefits of vacuum laparostomy. METHOD: Pigs (Landrace and Large White) under general anesthesia were submitted to laparostomy through which a multiperforated tube was placed along each flank and exteriorized in the left and lower right quadrants. A vacuum dressing was applied, and intermittent negative pressure was maintained. Peritoneal dialysis solution (PDS) was then infused through the tubes for 36 hours. The stability of peritoneostomy with intermittent infusion of fluids, the system resistance to obstruction and leakage, water balance, hemodynamic and biochemical parameters were evaluated. Fluid disposition in the abdominal cavity was analyzed through CT. RESULTS: Even when negative pressure was not applied, the dressing maintained the integrity of the system, and there were no leaks or blockage of the catheters during the procedure. The aspirated volume by vacuum laparostomy was similar to the infused volume (9073.5±1496.35 mL versus 10165±235.73 mL, p=0.25), and there were no major changes in hemodynamic or biochemical analysis. According to CT images, 60 ml/kg PDS was sufficient to occupy all intra-abdominal spaces. CONCLUSION: Continuous peritoneal lavage with negative pressure proved to be technically possible and may be an option in the treatment of diffuse peritonitis.
Abstract Purpose: To determine whether the absence of transglutaminase 2 enzyme (TG2) in TG2 knockout mice (TG2-/-) protect them against early age-related functional and histological arterial changes. Methods: Pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured using non-invasive Doppler and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured in awake mice using tail-cuff system. Thoracic aortas were excised for evaluation of endothelial dependent vasodilation (EDV) by wire myography, as well as histological analyses. Results: PWV and MAP were similar in TG2-/-mice to age-matched wild type (WT) control mice. Old WT mice exhibited a markedly attenuated EDV as compared to young WT animals. The TG2-/-young and old mice had enhanced EDV responses (p<0.01) as compared to WT mice. There was a significant increase in TG2 crosslinks by IHC in WT old group compared to Young, with no stain in the TG2-/-animals. Optical microscopy examination of Old WT mice aorta showed thinning and fragmentation of elastic laminae. Young WT mice, old and young TG2-/-mice presented regularly arranged and parallel elastic laminae of the tunica media. Conclusion: The genetic suppression of TG2 delays the age-induced endothelial dysfunction and histological modifications.
Abstract Purpose: To establish and evaluate the feasibility of continuous peritoneal lavage with vacuum peritoneostomy in an animal model. Methods: Eight pigs aged 3-4 months, females, were anesthetized and submitted to laparotomy and installation of a continuous peritoneal lavage with vacuum peritoneostomy. The sta-bility of the system, the physiological effects of washing with NaCl 0.9% and the sys-tem clearance were evaluated. Results: Stability of vacuum peritoneostomy was observed, with no catheter leaks or obstructions and the clearance proved adequate, however, the mean volume of fluids aspirated by the peritoneostomy at the end of the experiment was higher than the volume infused by the catheters (p=0.02). Besides that, the animals presented a progressive increase in heart rate (p=0.04) and serum potassium (p=0.02). Conclusion: The continuous peritoneal lavage technique with vacuum peritoneostomy is feasible and presents adequate clearance.
ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of remote ischemic preconditioning (IPC-R) in the fetal small bowel transplantation model. METHODS: Two groups were constituted: The Isogenic transplant (ISO, C57BL/6 mice, n=24) and the allogenic transplant (ALO, BALB/c mice, n=24). In each group, the animals were distributed with and without IPC-R. It was obtained the following subgroups: Tx, IPC-R, Fk, IPC-Fk, in both strains. Intestinal grafts were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemically. RESULTS: The graft development evaluation in ISO group showed that IPC-R reduced the development compared with ISO-Tx (5.2±0.4 vs 9.0±0.8) and IPC-R-Fk increased the graft development compared with IPC-R (11.2±0.7 and 10.2±0.8). In ALO group, IPC-Fk increased the development compared with ALO-Tx and ALO with IPC-R (6.0±0.8, 9.0±1.2, 0.0±0.0, 0.5±0.3). The PCNA expression was increased in ISO group treated with Fk and IPC-R compared to other groups (12.2±0.8 vs Tx: 8.8±0.9, IPC-R: 8.0±0.4 and Fk: 9.0±0.6). The graft rejection was lower in groups treated with IPC-R (-18%), Fk (-68%) or both (-61%) compared with ALO-Tx. CONCLUSION: Remote ischemic preconditioning showed benefic effect even associate with Tacrolimus on the development and acute rejection of the fetal small bowel graft in the Isogenic and Allogenic transplants.
Abstract Objective: Endovascular techniques to treat abdominal aortic aneurysms results in lower morbidity and mortality rates. However, dilation of the common iliac arteries prevents adequate distal sealing, which compromises the procedure success. The aim of this study is report the long-term outcomes of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms associated with aneurysm of the common iliac artery following endovascular repair using a bifurcated bell-bottom stent graft. Methods: This is a retrospective study that evaluated patients treated with bifurcated bell-bottom extension stent grafts to repair an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm and who had at least one common iliac artery with dilatation > 1.5 cm for at least 12 months after the endovascular intervention. Results: Thirty-eight patients with a mean age of 70.4±8.2 years were included. Stent graft placement was followed by dilation of the common iliac artery aneurysms in 35.3% of cases; endoleak and reoperation rates were 17.6% and 15.7%, respectively. Younger patients showed a higher rate of artery diameter increase following the procedure. The average arterial dilation was 16% in the first year, 29% in the second year, 57% in the third year and 95% from the fourth year until the end of follow-up. Conclusion: Repair of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms with bifurcated bell-bottom type stents when there is common iliac artery dilation is a good therapeutic option to preserve hypogastric flow. The rate of endoleak was 17.6%, and 15.7% of cases required reoperation. Younger patients are more likely to experience dilation of the common iliac artery after the procedure.
ResumoIntrodução:A terapia farmacológica é uma estratégia de prevenção das complicações associadas à lesão de isquemia e reperfusão tecidual que ocorre após a reposição volêmica no tratamento do choque hemorrágico.Objetivo:O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a repercussão da N-acetilcisteína associada à reposição volêmica na lesão cardíaca em modelo de choque hemorrágico em ratos.Métodos:Ratos Wistar, machos, foram randomizados e submetidos ao choque hemorrágico controlado por 60 minutos e, depois, submetidos à reposição volêmica com Ringer Lactato. Em um grupo de seis animais, foram adicionados 150 mg/Kg de N-acetilcisteína ao fluido de reposição volêmica. Os animais foram observados por 120 minutos e após este período foram submetidos à eutanásia e coleta do tecido cardíaco para análise histopatológica e dosagem de substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico e interleucinas pró e anti-inflamatórias.Resultados:Foi observada menor concentração de substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (0,20±0,05 vs. 0,27±0,05, P=0,014) e menor dano histopatológico e edema no tecido cardíaco do grupo tratado com N-acetilcisteína em relação ao grupo cuja reposição volêmica ocorreu somente com Ringer Lactato. Não foi observada diferença da expressão das citocinas interleucina 6 (2.138,29±316,89 vs. 1.870,16±303,68, P=0,091) e interleucina 10 (1.019,83±262,50 vs. 848,60±106,5, P=0,169) entre os grupos tratados.Conclusão:A associação da N-acetilcisteína na reposição volêmica atenua o estresse oxidativo no coração, assim como dano e edema miocárdicos, porém, não modifica a expressão de citocinas inflamatórias.
AbstractIntroduction:Pharmacological therapy is a strategy for the prevention of complications associated with ischemia and reperfusion injury that occurs after volume replacement in the treatment of hemorrhagic shock.Objective:The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of N-acetylcysteine associated with fluid resuscitation in cardiac injury in a rat hemorrhagic shock model.Methods:Mice Wister male rats were randomly and subjected to controlled hemorrhagic shock for 60 min. and then, subjected to resuscitation with Ringer lactate. In a group of six animals, 150mg/kg of N-acetylcysteine were added to fluid volume replacement. The animals were observed for 120 min and after this period, were euthanized and cardiac tissue was collected for histopathological analysis and measurement of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and pro-and anti-inflammatory interleukin.Results:Cardiac tissue of the group treated with N-acetylcysteine showed lower concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (0.20±0.05 vs. 0.27±0.05, P=0.014) and reduced histopathological damage and edema when compared to the group whose volume replacement occurred only with Ringer lactate. There was no difference in the expression of cytokines interleukin 6 (2,138.29±316.89 vs. 1,870.16±303.68, P=0.091) and interleukin 10 (1.019,83±262,50 vs. 848.60±106.5, P=0.169) between the treated groups.Conclusion:The association of N-acetylcysteine on volume replacement attenuates oxidative stress in the heart, as well myocardial damage and edema, but does not modify the expression of inflammatory cytokines.
PURPOSE: To evaluate effects of ischemic preconditioning and Cilostazol on muscle ischemia-reperfusion injury. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were submitted to muscle ischemic and reperfusion injury (4h of the left common iliac artery occlusion followed by 1h of reperfusion). Five experimental groups were constituted: Control group (n=4); Ischemia-Reperfusion (IR, n=5); Ischemic preconditioning group (IP, n=6); Ischemia-Reperfusion group treated with cilostazol (IRCi, n=6) and Ischemic preconditioning group treated with cilostazol (IPCi, n=6). At the end, left gracile muscle was removed and embedded in paraffin. Histopathology, neutrophil infiltration, myocyte necrosis and edema were analyzed. RESULTS: When compared with the control group, IR group showed increased neutrophil infiltration, severe necrosis and edema. There was significant difference between myocytes necrosis of IR group and IP group. There was no difference between the histopathological changes between IP, IRCi and IPCi groups. CONCLUSIONS: The model of IR caused severe muscle injury in the rat hind limb and ischemic preconditioning has a protective effect, reducing myocyte necrosis, however, treatment with cilostazol and also the association between cilostazol and preconditioning has no protective effect on the skeletal muscle subjected to ischemia and reperfusion injury.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose is to study the effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and autologous platelet concentrates in healing the fibula bone of rabbits after induced fractures. METHODS: A total of 128 male New Zealand albino rabbits, between 6-8 months old, were subjected to a total osteotomy of the proximal portion of the right fibula. After surgery, the animals were divided into four groups (n = 32 each): control group, in which animals were subjected to osteotomy; autologous platelet concentrate group, in which animals were subjected to osteotomy and autologous platelet concentrate applied at the fracture site; hyperbaric oxygen group, in which animals were subjected to osteotomy and 9 consecutive daily hyperbaric oxygen therapy sessions; and autologous platelet concentrate and hyperbaric oxygen group, in which animals were subjected to osteotomy, autologous platelet concentrate applied at the fracture site, and 9 consecutive daily hyperbaric oxygen therapy sessions. Each group was divided into 4 subgroups according to a pre-determined euthanasia time points: 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks postoperative. After euthanasia at a specific time point, the fibula containing the osseous callus was prepared histologically and stained with hematoxylin and eosin or picrosirius red. RESULTS: Autologous platelet concentrates and hyperbaric oxygen therapy, applied together or separately, increased the rate of bone healing compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy and autologous platelet concentrate combined increased the rate of bone healing in this experimental model.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) combined with fluid resuscitation on pulmonary cell death in rats induced with controlled hemorrhagic shock (HS). METHODS: Two arteries (MAP calculation and exsanguination) and one vein (treatments) were catheterized in 22 anesthetized rats. Two groups of male albino rats were induced with controlled HS at 35mmHg MAP for 60 min. After this period, the RL group was resuscitated with Ringer's lactate and the RL+NAC group was resuscitated with Ringer's lactate combined with 150mg/Kg NAC. The control group animals were cannulated only. The animals were euthanized after 120 min of fluid resuscitation. Lung tissue samples were collected to evaluate the following: histopathology, TUNEL and imunohistochemical expression of caspase 3. RESULTS: RL showed a greater number of cells stained by TUNEL than RL + NAC, but there was no change in caspase 3 expression in any group. CONCLUSION: N-acetylcysteine associate to fluid resuscitation, after hemorrhagic shock, decreased cell death attenuating lung injury.
OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da N-acetilcisteína (NAC) combinada ao fluido de reposição volêmica na morte celular pulmonar de ratos submetidos ao choque hemorrágico (CH) controlado. MÉTODOS: Duas artérias (cálculo da PAM e exsanguinação) e uma veia (tratamentos) foram cateterizadas em 22 ratos anestesiados. Dois grupos de ratos machos albinos foram induzidos ao CH controlado com PAM de 35mmHg por 60 min. Após este período, o grupo RL foi ressuscitado com Ringer lactato e o grupo RL+NAC foi ressuscitado com Ringer lactato associado com 150mg/Kg de NAC. O grupo controle sofreu somente o procedimento cirúrgico de cateterização. Os animais sofreram eutanásia após 120 min. da ressuscitação. Amostras de tecido pulmonar foram coletadas para histopatologia, TUNEL e a imuno-expressão da caspase 3. RESULTADOS: RL apresentou maior número de células marcadas pelo TUNEL do que RL+NAC, porém sem alteração na expressão da caspase 3 em nenhum dos grupos estudados. CONCLUSÃO: A N-acetilcisteína teve um papel protetor na morte celular em modelo de choque hemorrágico controlado.