Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial potential of a calcium silicate-based sealer (Bio-C Sealer, Angelus) against common bacteria in primary and secondary endodontic infections. Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans were exposed to fresh Bio-C Sealer for 24 h by the agar diffusion method (n=5). Additionally, the antibacterial activity was investigated against E. faecalis and S. mutans biofilms (48 h old) grown in discs with 4 mm in diameter and 2 mm in height. (n=3) of set discs of Bio-C Sealer (Angelus), EndoFill (Dentsply-Mallefer), Sealer 26 (Dentsply), AH Plus (Dentsply), Sealapex (Sybron-Endo) and EndoSequence BC Sealer (Brasseler). The antibacterial activity was evaluated by colony forming unity (CFU) counting using ImageJ software. Data were compared by one-way ANOVA followed by Holm-Sidak test (a=5%). Fresh Bio-C Sealer exhibited antimicrobial activity against all bacteria evaluated by agar diffusion method, except for S. mutans. Set discs of all endodontic sealers tested showed similar CFU values for E. faecalis (p>0.05). S. mutans in biofilms showed higher susceptibility to EndoFill compared with the other sealers (p<0.05). In conclusion, the results indicate that fresh Bio-C Sealer does not inhibit S. mutans growth, but exhibits antibacterial activity against E. faecalis, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and E. coli. After setting, the Bio-C Sealer exhibits an antimicrobial potential comparable to that of the other sealers evaluated in E. faecalis biofilm, but lower than that of EndoFill for S. mutans biofilm.
Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o potencial antibacteriano do novo cimento biocerâmico (Bio-C Sealer, Angelus) contra bactérias comuns em infecções endodônticas primárias e secundárias. Culturas de Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus e Streptococcus mutans foram expostos a amostras frescas do Bio-C sealer durante 24 h pelo método de difusão em agar (n=5). A atividade antibacteriana de amostras dos cimentos Bio-C Sealer (Angelus), EndoFill (Dentsply-Mallefer), Sealer 26 (Dentsply), AH Plus (Dentsply), Sealapex (Sybron-Endo) e EndoSequence BC Sealer (Brasseler) após a presa também foi investigada em biofilmes de 48 h das bactérias E. faecalis e S. mutans, crescidos em discos com 4 mm de diâmetro e 2 mm de altura. A atividade antibacteriana foi avaliada por contagem das unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC) utilizando o software ImageJ. Os dados foram comparados por ANOVA a um critério seguido pelo pós-teste Holm-Sidak (a=5%). Amostras frescas do Bio-C Sealer exibiram atividade antimicrobiana contra todas as bactérias avaliadas pelo método de difusão em ágar, exceto para S. mutans. A análise da formação de biofilme mostrou que todos os cimentos endodônticos testados apresentaram valores similares de UFC para E. faecalis (p> 0,05), enquanto biofilmes de S. mutans foram mais suscetíveis ao EndoFill em comparação com os demais cimentos (p<0,05). Conclui-se que o cimento Bio-C Sealer fresco exibe atividade antibacteriana para E. faecalis, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa e E. coli, mas não inibe o crescimento de S. mutans. Após a presa, o cimento Bio-C Sealer exibe potencial antimicrobiano similar ao dos demais cimentos avaliados em biofilme de E. faecalis, mas inferior ao do EndoFill para S. mutans.
Abstract Objectives This study assessed the incidence and variability features of root canals system (RCS) and their ramifications according to Pucci & Reig (PR) (1944) and the American Association of Endodontists (AAE) (2017) by micro-computed tomography (μCT). Methodology 500 representative extracted human teeth of each tooth group (n=50) (maxillary/mandibular central and lateral incisors, canines, first and second premolars and molars) were scanned by μCT with a resolution of 26.70 μm. The reconstructed cross-sections images and the visualization of the continuous slices in the transversal axis were performed using DataViewer software. RCS were classified according to Pucci & Reig (main canal, collateral canal, lateral canal, secondary canal, accessory canal, intercanal, recurrent canal) and AAE (main canal, accessory canal, lateral canal). The apical deltas were assessed for both classifications. The prevalence of apical deltas was evaluated using the Chi-squared test (p<0.05). Results According to PR, a higher incidence of lateral canals was observed in maxillary canines (10%), central incisors (8%) and first premolars (6%). Using AAE, the highest incidence of lateral canals was observed in the mandibular first premolars (85%), first and second molars (84%), lateral incisors (67%), canines (59%), and in maxillary first premolars (52%). Regarding accessory canals, the PR showed a frequency in 2% of the maxillary lateral incisors and maxillary and mandibular first premolars and 3% of mandibular first and second molars. On the other hand, the AAE showed the highest incidence of accessory canals in 86% of the maxillary first premolars, 71% in mandibular lateral incisors, 69% in mandibular first premolars, 65% in mandibular canines, and 56% in maxillary canines. The PR showed the lowest incidence of apical deltas for all dental groups when compared with AAE (p=0.004). Interestingly, distal canals in maxillary molars showed a significant discrepancy between classifications (p=0.027). Conclusions μCT enabled accurately describing the RC system and related ramifications, adding to the PR and AAE classifications, with some discrepancies reported for maxillary molars. Clinical Relevance This μCT study enabled a thorough description of the variability among root canals and their ramifications, including clinically relevant details on the presence and location of lateral canals and accessories in all human tooth groups, beyond the currently existing classification systems.
Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effects of dietary restriction on the growth plate and long bone tissue in growing rats. Methods: Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to two groups: Control (Con) and Diet-restricted (Res). After weaning, the Res rats were offered 50% of the chow ingested by the control (ad libitum food intake). The animals were subdivided into two subgroups with follow-ups up to 56 or 70 days. After euthanasia, the growth plate of tibias was analyzed by histomorphometry, micro-computed tomography, and mechanical test. The trabecular and compact bones were evaluated by histomorphometry, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and micro-computed tomography (μCT). Real-time PCR was used to analyze gene expression. Results: Although dietary restriction did not alter gene expression, several phenotypic changes were seen in the growth plate; i.e., decrease in volume, reduction in total area and height, decrease in the area ossified zones, mechanical weakening, reduction in mass of trabecular and cortical bone, lower bone density, deterioration of the trabecular and cortical microarchitecture, and trabeculae with lower collagen deposition. Conclusion: Dietary restriction had severe detrimental effects on the growth plate and trabecular and cortical bone.
Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effects of food restriction on fracture healing in growing rats. Methods: Sixty-eight male Wistar rats were assigned to two groups: (1) Control and (2) Dietary restriction. After weaning the dietary restricted animals were fed ad libitum for 42 days with 50% of the standard chow ingested by the control group. Subsequently, the animals underwent bone fracture at the diaphysis of the right femur, followed by surgical stabilization of bone fragments. On days 14 and 28 post-fracture, the rats were euthanized, and the fractured femurs were dissected, the callus was analyzed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, micro-computed tomography, histomorphometry, mechanical tests, and gene expression. Results: Dietary restriction decreased body mass gain and resulted in several phenotypic changes at the bone callus (a delay in cell proliferation and differentiation, lower rate of newly formed bone and collagen deposition, reductions in bone callus density and size, decrease in tridimensional callus volume, deterioration in microstructure, and reduction in bone callus strength), together with the downregulated expression of osteoblast-related genes. Conclusion: Dietary restriction had detrimental effects on osseous healing, with a healing delay and a lower quality of bone callus formation.
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate morphological features of 70 single-rooted mandibular first premolars with radicular grooves (RG) using micro-CT technology. Teeth were scanned and evaluated regarding the morphology of the roots and root canals as well as length, depth and percentage frequency location of the RG. Volume, surface area and Structure Model Index (SMI) of the canals were measured for the full root length. Two-dimensional parameters and frequency of canal orifices were evaluated at 1, 2, and 3 mm levels from the apical foramen. The number of accessory canals, the dentinal thickness, and cross-sectional appearance of the canal at different root levels were also recorded. Expression of deep grooves was observed in 21.42% of the sample. Mean lengths of root and RG were 13.43 mm and 8.5 mm, respectively, while depth of the RG ranged from 0.75 to 1.13 mm. Mean canal volume, surface area and SMI were 10.78 mm3, 58.51 mm2, and 2.84, respectively. Apical delta was present in 4.35% of the sample and accessory canals were observed mostly at the middle and apical thirds. Two-dimensional parameters indicated an oval-shaped cross-sectional appearance of the root canal with a high percentage frequency of canal divisions (87.15%). Canal configuration type V (58.57%) was the most prevalent. C-shaped configuration was observed in 13 premolars (18.57%), whereas dentinal thickness ranged from 1.0 to 1.31 mm. Radicular grooves in mandibular first premolars was associated with the occurrence of several anatomical complexities, including C-shaped canals and divisions of the main root canal.
Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a morfologia de 70 pré-molares inferiores com depressões radiculares (DR) usando a microtomografia. Os dentes foram escaneados e avaliados quanto à morfologia das raízes e canais radiculares, bem como o comprimento, profundidade, frequência e localização das DR. O volume, a área de superfície e o Structure Model Index (SMI) dos canais foram mensurados no comprimento total da raiz. Parâmetros bidimensionais e orifícios do canal foram avaliados a 1, 2 e 3 mm do forame apical. O número de canais acessórios, a espessura dentinária e a aparência transversal do canal em diferentes níveis de raiz também foram registrados. A expressão de sulcos profundos foi observada em 21,42% da amostra. Os comprimentos médios de raiz e DR foram de 13,43 mm e 8,5 mm, respectivamente, enquanto a profundidade das DR variou de 0,75 a 1,13 mm. O volume médio do canal, a área superficial e o SMI foram de 10,78 mm3, 58,51 mm2 e 2,84, respectivamente. O delta apical estava presente em 4,35% da amostra e os canais acessórios foram observados principalmente nos terços médio e apical. Os parâmetros bidimensionais indicaram canais radiculares com secção oval e alta frequência de divisões canal principal (87,15%). A configuração Tipo V do canal radicular foi a mais prevalente (58,57%). A presença de canais em forma de C foi observada em 13 pré-molares (18,57%), enquanto a espessura dentinária variou de 1,0 a 1,31 mm. Os sulcos radiculares nos primeiros pré-molares inferiores foram associados à ocorrência de várias complexidades anatômicas, incluindo canais em forma de C e múltiplas divisões do canal principal.
Abstract To assess the physicochemical properties of AH Plus, GuttaFlow 2, GuttaFlow BioSeal, and MM Seal, five samples of each root canal sealer were evaluated to determine their setting time (ST), dimensional change (DC), solubility (SL), flow (FL), and radiopacity (RD) according to American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association (ANSI/ADA) Specification 57. The distilled and deionized water obtained from the SL test were subjected to atomic absorption spectrometry to observe the presence of Ca2+, K+, and Na+ ions. Statistical analysis was performed by using one-way ANOVA and Tukey–Kramer tests (p < 0.05). The following results were obtained: ST (min) (AH Plus 463.6 ± 13.22; GuttaFlow 2 24.35 ± 2.78; GuttaFlow Bioseal 17.4 ± 0.55; MM Seal 47.60 ± 4.39), DC (%) (AH Plus 0.06 ± 0.12; GuttaFlow 2 −26.06 ± 1.24; GuttaFlow Bioseal 2.10 ± 1.47; MM Seal 8.47 ± 2.41), SL (%) (AH Plus 0.41 ± 0.21; GuttaFlow 2 5.13 ± 4.11; GuttaFlow Bioseal 3.03 ± 1.05; MM Seal 0.94 ± 0.17), FL (mm) (AH Plus 36.42 ± 0.40; GuttaFlow 2 36.44 ± 0.05; GuttaFlow Bioseal 35.4 ± 0.03; MM Seal 52.75 ± 0.60), and RD (mmAl) (AH Plus 7.52 ± 1.59; GuttaFlow 2 6.85 ± 0.14; GuttaFlow Bioseal 7.02 ± 0.18; MM Seal 3.32 ± 0.90). ST, DC, SL, FL, and RD showed statistical differences among the root canal sealers (p < 0.05). As AH Plus showed the lowest DC and SL values (p < 0.05), the findings indicate that this sample is the only sealer conforming to ANSI/ADA standards.
Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate the bond strength (BS) of root canal fillings to root dentin using the reciprocating file-matched single-cone or lateral compaction techniques with resin-based and calcium-silicate-based sealers. Maxillary canine roots were prepared and filled using one of the following approaches: Reciproc R40 file and R40 single cone, WaveOne Large file and Large single cone, or ProTaper up to F4 file with lateral compaction. The root filling was performed using AH Plus, Epiphany SE or MTA Fillapex (n = 10). Three 1-mm-thick slices were obtained from each third of each root. Two slices were subjected to a push-out test, and the other slices were prepared for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine the dentin-sealer interface. Data (in MPa) from the push-out tests were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p < 0.05). Failure modes (adhesive, cohesive or mixed) were evaluated at ×25 magnification. The single-cone techniques resulted in lower BS values than the lateral compaction technique. For lateral compaction, AH Plus and Epiphany SE showed the highest and lowest BS values, respectively. Slight differences were observed between sealers when the single-cone techniques were used. A tendency to reduce the BS toward the apical third was observed. Adhesive failures were predominant for all experimental conditions. A closer adaption of the filling material on the root dentin was observed for the AH Plus and lateral compaction techniques. The Reciproc and WaveOne techniques were associated with lower BS values than the lateral compaction technique. However, the effect of the root canal filling technique appears to be sealer-dependent.
Pulpotomy is a conservative therapy performed to remove the inflamed coronal portion of the pulp and preserve the vitality of the remaining radicular pulp. This article reports two cases of immature permanent mandibular molars with clinical signs of pulp vitality and radiographic images of periapical bone rarefaction, which were treated with calcium hydroxide pulpotomy. In Case 1, pulpotomy was performed in a single session, while in Case 2 two sessions were required to complete the treatment. Clinical and radiographic follow up within 13 and 9 months, respectively, showed hard tissue barrier and new bone formation as well as progression of root development. These outcomes are confirmatory that an accurate clinical/radiographic assessment of pulp vitality is of paramount importance for the correct diagnosis and indication of pulpotomy in cases of young permanent teeth with incomplete root formation.
A pulpotomia é uma terapia conservadora indicada para dentes vitais com alterações inflamatórias da polpa dental coronária. Esse artigo relata dois casos de molares inferiores com rizogênese incompleta e imagem radiográfica de rarefação periapical que, clinicamente, apresentavam vitalidade pulpar e foram tratados pela técnica da pulpotomia com hidróxido de cálcio. No caso 1 a pulpotomia foi realizada em sessão única e no caso 2 em duas sessões. A proservação clínica e radiográfica com 13 e 9 meses, respectivamente, evidenciou formação de barreira mineralizada, neoformação óssea e desenvolvimento radicular. Conclui-se que a avaliação clínica da vitalidade pulpar, complementada pela análise radiográfica, é fundamental para o correto diagnóstico e indicação de pulpotomia em casos de dentes permanentes jovens com rizogênese incompleta.