ABSTRACT This study aims to report the occurrence of Heilipus draco in seeds of Ocotea puberula, and to describe the main injuries caused to the seeds and the effects on germination, as well as the occurrence of parasitoid hymenopterans. To this end, fruits of seven trees were selected, in the extreme south of the Atlantic Forest, Brazil. Fruit collection was carried out weekly in the middle third of the canopy, forming lots, from the beginning of fruit formation until total dehiscence, for two years. In order to examine the damage caused by the granivorous insects inside the fruits, 100 fruits were sectioned taking into account the batch/year with the aid of a scalpel and analyzed using a binocular stereomicroscope. In the same way, 144 fruits from each lot/year were stored individually in transparent plates in order to verify the occurrence and identification of species of granivorous insects. The proof of the influence of the injury caused to the seeds by the granivorous insects was carried out by the germination test, with four replications of 25 seeds, comparing seeds with and without oviposition holes. The species H. draco was found to be associated with the fruits of O. puberula. The egg-layings are endophytic, carried out directly on the seed. Larval parasitism of Hymenoptera Bracon, Omeganastatus, Scambus and Triapsis was observed. It is concluded that the cycle from egg to adult takes place inside the seed of O. puberula, and the injuries caused by the larvae decrease germination.
RESUMO: A produção mundial de noz-pecã Carya illinoinensis (Juglandaceae) é liderada pelos Estados Unidos. No Brasil, em especial no Rio Grande do Sul, houve uma expansão da área plantada com a cultura nos últimos anos. No entanto, faltam pesquisas relacionadas à entomofauna associada à noz-pecã, bem como práticas culturais que auxiliem no Manejo Integrado de Pragas, mesmo havendo uma expansão da cultura. Assim, o presente estudo objetivou avaliar a fauna de artrópodes na copa de plantas de C. illinoinensis, submetido a diferentes manejos de solo, em Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Para tanto, utilizou-se delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com cinco blocos e quatro tratamentos: plantio em cova pequena, com 20 × 60 cm (Sp); utilização de subsolador mais grade niveladora e cova pequena (Ssp); utilização de enxada rotativa e cova pequena (Tsp); e plantio em cova grande, com 40 × 60 cm (Lp). De novembro de 2014 a maio de 2015, foram coletadas 7.617 espécimes nas copas de árvores jovens de nogueira-pecã. Foram identificados 150 grupos taxonômicos, sendo Coleoptera a ordem com maior riqueza de espécies. Monellia caryella (Hemiptera: Aphididae) apresentou elevada densidade. Foram registrados os inimigos naturais himenópteros parasitoides e Coccinellidae. Conclui-se que a artropodofauna em copas de plantas jovens de nogueira-pecã apresenta diversidade similar entre os tratamentos e predomínio de M. caryella nas áreas avaliadas.
ABSTRACT: World production of pecan Carya illinoinensis (Juglandaceae) is led by the United States. In Brazil, especially in the Rio Grande do Sul State, there has been an expansion of the planted area in recent years. Despite this expansion of pecan culture, there is a lack of research on entomofauna associated with pecan and on cultural practices which aids in Integrated Pest Management. This study aimed to evaluate the arthropod fauna in the canopies of C. illinoinensis trees grown under different soil management practices in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A randomized design was used with five blocks and four treatments: planting in small pits of 20 × 60 cm (Sp) using a subsoiler with a leveling grader/shank, planting in small pits (Ssp) using a rotary tiller (Tsp), and planting in large pits of 40 × 60 cm (Lp). A total of 7,617 specimens were collected from November 2014 to May 2015 from the young pecan canopies. Among the 150 taxonomic groups identified, Coleoptera was the most taxonomically rich order. The blackmargined aphid Monellia caryella (Hemiptera: Aphididae) had the greatest abundance. Hymenopteran parasitoids and Coccinellidae spp. were among the natural pest enemies detected. We conclude that the arthropod fauna found in the young pecan canopies is similarly diverse among the different soil managements, with a predominance of pest species M. caryella in all the evaluated areas.
ABSTRACT We surveyed parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera) in two guarana plantations in the central Brazilian Amazon (one conventionally, and one organically managed), as well as in adjacent forest and edge areas between crop and forest. We evaluated differences between management systems in parasitoid diversity and abundance, and assessed the importance of the surrounding matrix as a source of parasitoid wasps for guarana cultivation. Parasitoid wasp richness, abundance and taxonomic composition (at family level) were compared between plantations, and among habitats within plantations. Wasps were sampled using Malaise and Moericke traps. A total of 25,951 parasitoid wasps (10,828 in the conventional, and 15,123 in the organic crop area) were collected, and were distributed in 11 superfamilies and 38 families. In the conventional management area, the greatest abundance and richness of parasitoids were recorded in the adjacent forest, while, in the organic management area, the greatest abundance and richness were recorded in the crop-forest edge. Parasitoid wasp family richness was not influenced by management system and habitat but varied significantly between trap types. Average wasp abundance varied significantly between management systems. The presence of adjacent forest in both cultivation areas likely contributed to a greater abundance and richness of parasitoid wasps, showing the importance of preserving forest areas near the plantations.
RESUMO Pesquisamos vespas parasitoides (Hymenoptera) em duas plantações de guaraná na Amazônia central brasileira (uma convencional e outra manejada organicamente), bem como em florestas adjacentes e áreas de borda entre cultivo e floresta. Avaliamos as diferenças entre os sistemas de manejo na diversidade e abundância de parasitoides e a importância da matriz circundante como fonte de vespas parasitoides para o cultivo de guaraná. A riqueza de vespas parasitoides, abundância e a composição taxonômica (em nível de família) foram comparadas entre as plantações e entre os habitats nas plantações. As vespas foram amostradas usando armadilhas Malaise e Moericke. Foram coletadas 25.951 vespas parasitoides (10.828 em área de cultivo convencional e 15.123 em cultivo orgânico), distribuídas em 11 superfamílias e 38 famílias. Na área de manejo convencional, a maior abundância e riqueza de parasitoides foi registrada na floresta adjacente, enquanto na área de manejo orgânico, a maior abundância e riqueza foram registradas na borda da floresta. A riqueza de famílias de vespas parasitoides não foi influenciada pelo sistema de manejo e habitat, mas variou significativamente entre os tipos de armadilhas. A abundância média de vespas variou significativamente entre os sistemas de manejo. A presença de floresta adjacente em ambas as áreas de cultivo provavelmente contribuiu para uma maior abundância e riqueza de vespas parasitoides, mostrando a importância de preservar as áreas florestais próximas às plantações.
ABSTRACT Forest species can have their seeds damaged by granivorous insects, especially by those in their larval stage. In this context, this study aims to report the occurrence of Amblycerus species in Cordia trichotoma seeds, to describe their main damage to seeds and effects on germination, as well as their associated hymenopteran parasitoids. Therefore, seven trees were selected in the municipality of Taquaruçu do Sul, RS, Brazil. Fruits were collected weekly from the medium third of the tree crown, from the beginning of their formation until total dehiscence. To examine the damage caused by granivorous insects within the fruits, 15 fruits from each tree were sectioned with a scalpel. Furthermore, 10 fruits from each tree were stored individually in clear plates to verify the occurrence and identification of granivorous insect species. Evidence of the damage caused to seeds was verified through the germination test by comparing preserved and damaged seeds, with four repetitions of 25 seeds each. The species Amblycerus longesuturalis and Amblycerus profaupar (Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) were found associated with fruits of C. trichotoma. Female insects predominantly laid eggs on the superior part between the marcescent calyx and the fruit, and larvae perforated the fruit tegument to start consuming seed embryos and reserves. Bruquine larvae are parasitized by Hymenoptera of Bracon, Mirax, Omeganastatus and Triapsis genera. In conclusion, the germination of C. trichotoma seeds is significantly affected by emergence orifices caused by granivorous species.