SUMMARY: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of High-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the quality of life in healthy young people (YNG) and older adults (OLD)and its correlation with physical health status (anthropometric parameters and lower limb functionality) YNG (21 ? 2 years, BMI 26.37 ? 2.69 n = 12) and OLD (67 ? 5 years, BMI 27.16 ? 3.04 n = 12) groups underwent 12weeks of HIIT. Before and after the HIIT, anthropometric assessments, lower limb functionality tests, and SF-36 quality-of-life questionnaire were performed. There were no significant changes in the SF-36 dimensions (P>0.05). After HIIT, there were improvement percentage changes in Mental Component Summary (MCS) (YNG, +8.51 ? 25.80 % vs. OLD, +2.30 ? 9.05 %) and in Physical Component Summary (PCS) (YNG, +2.66 ? 20.54 % vs. OLD, +4.34 ? 22.71 %). Negative correlations were observed between body mass index (BMI) with PCS (R=-0.570, P=0.009) and with MCS (R=-0.649, P=0.002) in OLD as well as between MCS and waist circumference (R=-0.557, P?0.001) in both groups. Also, correlations were observed between PCS and the sit-to-stand test (R=-0.424, P=0.006) in both groups and gait speed (R=0.458, P=0.042) only in YNG. HIIT promotes positive percentage changes in quality of life, with YNG showing better results in PCS and OLD in MCS. Quality of life and physical health status were correlated in both groups.
RESUMEN: Determinar los efectos del entrenamiento interválico de alta intensidad (HIIT) sobre la calidad de vida en jóvenes sanos (YNG) y personas mayores (OLD) y su correlación con el estado de salud física (parámetros antropométricos y funcionalidad de miembros inferiores). Ambos grupos, YNG (21 ? 2 años, IMC 26,37 ? 2,69 n = 12) y OLD (67 ? 5 años, IMC 27,16 ? 3,04 n = 12) realizaron 12 semanas de HIIT. Antes y después del HIIT, se realizaron evaluaciones antropométricas, pruebas de funcionalidad de miembros inferiores y cuestionario de calidad de vida SF-36. No hubo cambios significativos en las dimensiones del SF-36 (P >0,05). Después del HIIT, hubo cambios porcentuales de mejora en el componente sumario mental (MCS) (YNG, +8.51 ? 25.80 % vs. OLD, +2.30 ? 9.05 %) y el componente sumario física (PCS) (YNG, +2,66 ? 20,54 % vs. OLD, +2,30 ? 9,05 %), correspondientes a la calidad de vida. Se observaron correlaciones negativas entre el índice de masa corporal (IMC) con PCS (R=-0,570; P=0,009) y con MCS (R=0,649; P=0,002) en OLD, así como entre MCS y circunferencia de cintura (R = - 0,557, P?0,001) en ambos grupos. Además, se observaron correlaciones entre PCS y la prueba de sentarse y levantarse (R = -0,424; P = 0,006) en ambos grupos y la velocidad de la marcha (R = 0,458; P = 0,042) solo en YNG. HIIT promueve cambios porcentuales positivos en la calidad de vida, con YNG mostrando mejores resultados en PCS y OLD en MCS. La calidad de vida y el estado de salud física se correlacionaron en ambos grupos.
Background: In Chile, Thyroid cancer (TC) is included in a list of diseases that have a guaranteed access to treatment, endorsed by the Ministry of Health. The care burden of the disease will depend on its incidence. Aim: To estimate the incidence of TC in Chilean patients with access to thyroid surgery and describe its histopathological characteristics. Material and methods: Analysis of the registry of all thyroidectomies performed at a private oncological clinic in Metropolitan Santiago, between 2016 and 2018. Incidence was estimated the number of persons affiliated to an insurance system managed by the same clinic, separated by age and gender. Results: TC adjusted incidence varied from 60.8 cases per 100,000 persons/year in 2016 to 48.7 cases per 100,000 persons/year in 2018. The proportion of microtumors was 34% when the diameter of all foci was considered. Papillary and follicular carcinomas were the pathological diagnoses in 96 and 2% of cases respectively. Twenty-one percent of tumors had extra-thyroidal invasion. Conclusions: The TC incidence herein reported is higher than the figure of 7.9 cases per 100,000 persons/year reported by us in 2014. This difference could be due to a true increase in the incidence of TC, following worldwide trends or to differences in the methods used in both studies.
Osteoporosis is a silent and frequent disease, which increases fracture risk. Approximately half of women and one of five men over 50 years old will suffer an osteoporotic fracture throughout their lives. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) allows a real bone mineral density (BMD) measurement in different parts of the skeleton and is considered the “gold standard” for quantifying osteoporosis with high accuracy and precision. The Board of the Chilean Society of Endocrinology and Diabetes (SOCHED) required from the Bone Disease Study Group to develop a consensus about the “Correct use of bone densitometry in clinical practice in Chilean population”. Therefore, we elaborated 25 questions which addressed key aspects about the indications for a DXA scan, and the details of how to perform and report this test. Since some of the evidence obtained was of low quality or inconclusive, we decided to create a multidisciplinary group of national experts in osteoporosis to develop a consensus in this subject. The group consisted of 22 physicians including endocrinologists, gynecologists, geriatricians, radiologists, rheumatologists and nuclear medicine specialists. Using the Delphi methodology to analyze previously agreed questions, we elaborated statements that were evaluated by the experts who expressed their degree of agreement. The final report of this consensus was approved by the SOCHED board.
Background: Dyslipidemias in childhood increase the risk of cardiovascular events in adult life. Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of dyslipidemia and risk of atherogenicity based in the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) in a sample of school children and adolescents. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study of 208 children aged 10.4 ± 1.0 years (107 women). Demographic data were obtained, and a clinical evaluation was conducted, including pubertal development according to Tanner and anthropometric parameters. A fasting blood sample was obtained to measure total cholesterol (CT), HDL cholesterol (cHDL) and triglycerides (TG), glucose and insulin. LDL cholesterol (cLDL), Non-HDL cholesterol and the indices CT/cHDL, cLDL/cHDL and AIP (log[TG/cHDL]) were calculated. Risk categories according to AIP for the pediatric population were also determined (low: AIP < 0.11, intermediate: AIP 0.11-0.21, high: AIP > 0.21). Results: Thirty eight percent of participants had dyslipidemia, without differences by gender and pubertal development. The frequency of dyslipidemia was significantly higher in children with obesity (54%, p < 0.01) and a waist circumference over percentile 90 (61%; p < 0.01). The later conditions had also higher CT/cHDL, cLDL/cHDL and AIP. According to AIP, 54% of children had a high atherogenicity risk along with alterations in anthropometric parameters and insulin resistance. All anthropometric and insulin resistance parameters were significantly correlated with the AIP. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of dyslipidemia in the studied population, which is associated with an increased cardiometabolic risk. The indices of atherogenicity and particularly AIP are correlated with nutritional status, abdominal obesity and parameters of insulin resistance.
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and obesity are a public health problem in Chile. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment alternative to achieve a significant and sustained weight reduction in patients with morbid obesity. The results of controlled clinical trials indicate that, compared to medical treatment, surgery for obese patients with DM2 allows a better control of blood glucose and cardiovascular risk factors, reduces the need for medications and increases the likelihood for remission. Consensus conferences and clinical practice guidelines support bariatric surgery as an option to treat DM2 in Class III Obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI) > 40) regardless of the glycemic control and the complexity of pharmacological treatment and in Class II Obesity (BMI 35-39,9) with inadequate glycemic control despite optimal pharmacological treatment and lifestyle. However, surgical indication for patients with DM2 and BMI between 30-34.9, the most prevalent sub-group, is only suggested. The Chilean Societies of Endocrinology and Diabetes and of Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery decided to generate a consensus regarding the importance of other factors related to DM2 that would allow a better selection of candidates for surgery, particularly when weight does not constitute an indication. Considering the national reality, we also need a statement regarding the selection and characteristics of the surgical procedure as well as the role of the diabetologist in the multidisciplinary team.
Background: Psychological stress and depressive symptoms are variables associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Aim: To determine the longitudinal association between psychological stress, depressive symptoms and MetS, and whether these variables predict MetS and its component trajectories. Material and Methods: Four hundred and twenty-three participants aged 44 ± 9 years (59% women), free of cardiovascular disease at baseline were enrolled into the Chilean study of psychological stress, obesity and MetS. Participants were followed-up for three years (three waves). Each year, they completed psychological questionnaires, anthropometric variables were measured, and blood samples were obtained. Results: Hierarchical linear regression showed that chronic psychological stress at baseline predicted the total number of MetS components (MetS score) during the third assessment wave (β = 0.147; p < 0.01). Growth curve modeling allowed to determine that participants who scored +1 standard deviation (SD) at baseline over the mean in psychological stress (βchronic stress = 0.903; 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 0.065; 1.741), and depressive symptoms (βdepressive symptoms = 2.482; 95% CI = 0.040; 4.923) had a higher waist circumference trajectory, as compared to those scoring −1 SD above the mean. Conclusions: Chronic psychological stress is longitudinally associated with the MetS score. Further, psychological stress and depressive symptoms at baseline predicted elevated MetS score trajectories, and a highest waist circumference.
Background: Childhood and adolescent obesity is a major public health problem in Chile. Aim: To characterize cardiometabolic risk factors in a population of schoolchildren from Carahue, Chile. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional assessment of 208 children aged 10.4 ± 1.0 years (106 women). A clinical evaluation was carried out including pubertal development according to Tanner and anthropometric parameters. A fasting blood sample was obtained to measure glucose, insulin and lipid profile. HOMA-IR and Quicki indices were calculated. Insulin resistance (IR) was established according to Burrows criteria and Barja criteria, previously proposed for the Chilean pediatric population. The metabolic syndrome (MetS) was established using the modified Cook criteria. Results: Thirty eight percent of children had overweight and 33.1% obesity. MetS was only observed in obese subjects and the frequency in this subgroup was 38%. The prevalence of IR was 51% according to the Burrows criteria and 19% according to Barja criteria. It was more common in participants who were overweight, obese or had abdominal obesity. Children with insulin resistance according to Barja criteria, had worse anthropometric measures than their counterparts without resistance. When Burrows criteria was used, no differences in anthropometric measures were observed between participants with or without resistance. The frequency of MetS was 26 and 18% in children with insulin resistance according to Barja and Burrows criteria, respectively. Insulin levels and insulin sensitivity indexes were positively correlated with anthropometric parameters. Conclusions: There was a high prevalence of overweight, obesity and MetS in these participants. Our results suggest that the IR criteria according to Barja allows to identify cases with higher metabolic risk.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFDL) includes fatty liver or simple steatosis, characterized by lipid deposits in hepatocytes and more advanced stages such as steatohepatitis (NASH) and non-alcoholic cirrhosis. Physical inactivity, hypercaloric and unbalanced diet together with aging play a key role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and are strongly associated with metabolic and physical activity continue to be major components in prevention and first-line treatment to attenuate or reverse NAFLD. Dietary patterns, their composition and weight reduction would be the most relevant nutritional aspects in NAFDL treatment. Physical exercise, moderate to intense, aerobic and resistance type contributes to weight loss, improves metabolic control and body composition. Pharmacological therapy can be useful in clinical circumstances that require it and needs a medical evaluation when there is no adherence and success in non-pharmacological interventions.
The thyroid nodule is a frequent cause of primary care consultation. The prevalence of a palpable thyroid nodule is approximately 4-7%, increasing up to 67% by the incidental detection of nodules on ultrasound. The vast majority are benign and asymptomatic, staying stable over time. The clinical importance of studying a thyroid nodule is to exclude thyroid cancer, which occurs in 5 to 10% of the nodules. The Board of SOCHED (Chilean Society of Endocrinology and Diabetes) asked the Thyroid Study Group to develop a consensus regarding the diagnostic management of the thyroid nodule in Chile, aimed at non-specialist physicians and adapted to the national reality. To this end, a multidisciplinary group of 31 experts was established among university academics, active researchers with publications on the subject and prominent members of scientific societies of endocrinology, head and neck surgery, pathology and radiology. A total of 14 questions were developed with key aspects for the diagnosis and subsequent referral of patients with thyroid nodules, which were addressed by the participants. In those areas where the evidence was insufficient or the national reality had to be considered, the consensus opinion of the experts was used through the Delphi methodology. The consensus was approved by the SOCHED board for publication.
Insulin resistance is a prevalent condition commonly associated with unhealthy lifestyles. It affects several metabolic pathways, increasing risk of abnormalities at different organ levels. Thus, diverse medical specialties should be involved in its diagnosis and treatment. With the purpose of unifying criteria about this condition, a scientific-based consensus was elaborated. A questionnaire including the most important topics such as cardio-metabolic risk, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and polycystic ovary syndrome, was designed and sent to national experts. When no agreement among them was achieved, the Delphi methodology was applied. The main conclusions reached are that clinical findings are critical for the diagnosis of insulin resistance, not being necessary blood testing. Acquisition of a healthy lifestyle is the most important therapeutic tool. Insulin-sensitizing drugs should be prescribed to individuals at high risk of disease according to clinically validated outcomes. There are specific recommendations for pregnant women, children, adolescents and older people.
Background: Neonatal malnutrition defined by birth weight (BW) is a risk factor for obesity and cardio-metabolic diseases in adults. Neonatal ponderal index (NPI) may have better diagnostic value than BW to establish nutritional status. Aim: To determine the effect of neonatal nutritional status, established by the three NPI curves available in Chile, on the risk of Metabolic Syndrome (MS) in obese school children. Material and Methods: A nested case/control study in a sample of 410 obese school children aged 10 to 16 years (57% males) was performed. The dichotomous response variable was the presence of MS defined as International Diabetes Federation (IDF) or Cook’s criteria. The exposure variable was having NPI < percentile (p) 10. Results: The frequency of MS was 36 and 39% according to the IDF and Cook criteria, respectively. The proportion of children with neonatal malnutrition exceeded 20%. A significantly increased risk for MS was only found when PNI was defined according to Lagos´s Table and MS was defined using IDF criteria. Having a PNI > p90, however, showed a trend towards a reduced risk of MS, which only reached significance using Lagos´s Table and Cook´s Criteria. Conclusions: Neonatal malnutrition defined by NPI is common in obese school children. The condition of neonatal under nutrition defined as PNI < p10 may be a risk factor for developing MS. Instead, having a NPI > p90 could be protective.
Background: Thyroid cancer (TC) detection is increasing steadily. Aim: To determine the incidence of TC based on pathological reports of thyroidectomies. Material and Methods: Fifty pathology laboratories performing thyroid gland pathological studies were identified. Those that accepted to participate were required to send trimestral reports of all thyroid pathological studies, from March 2011 to February 2012. Results: In the study period, 1309 case of TC were confirmed in 2614 thyroidectomy surgical samples. Considering the susceptible population according to 2012 census, the estimated incidence of TC during 2011 should be higher than 7.86 cases per 100,000 persons/year. Papillary cancer was the most common pathological type in 92% of samples (95% confidence intervals 90-93%). The proportion of microtumors was significantly higher in women than in men and among papillary than in follicular or medullary tumors. Only one fourth of tumors came from thyroidectomies performed in the Ministry of Health network. Conclusions: The incidence and features of TC in Chile are similar to the figures reported abroad.
Objective: To determine whether overweight is a risk factor for the development of early childhood caries (ECC) in preschoolers. Patients and Method: An observational retrospective cohort study was performed in 196 children under 2 years of age at Calbuco Hospital, Los Lagos Region, Chile, who were admitted between 2007 and 2009. Patients were grouped based on their nutritional status at admission in the two following categories: eutrophic and overweighed children as a result of excessive intake. Information regarding caries incidence and nutritional status were annually retrieved from records until the age of 5 years, according to medical and dental records. Results: At the beginning of the study, 33.67% were overweight and 16.33% were obese, reaching 40% overweight and 20.56% obese at four years of age. The incidence of early childhood caries in overweighed children was 57.14% compared to 40.82% in normal weight children (p = 0.022), with 1.4 RR (95% CI, 1044-1.88). Conclusions: The increased risk of early childhood decay in overweighed patients makes necessary to create instances of timely mutual referral between the professional that diagnoses overweighed children and the pediatric dentist in order to develop preventive treatments for both diseases.
Objetivo: Determinar si la malnutrición por exceso es un factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de caries temprana de la infancia (CTI) en preescolares. Pacientes y Método: Se realizó un estudio observacional de cohorte retrospectivo en 196 niños de 2 años del Hospital de Calbuco, Región de Los Lagos, Chile, ingresados durante los años 2007 a 2009. Los pacientes fueron agrupados de acuerdo a su estado nutricional al ingreso en niños eutróficos y niños con malnutrición por exceso. La información respecto a incidencia de caries y el estado nutricional fueron recuperados de la ficha anualmente hasta la edad de 5 años, según registro de las fichas médicas y odontológicas. Resultados: El 33,67% estaba en sobrepeso al inicio de la cohorte y el 16,33% obeso, alcanzando 40% sobrepeso y 20,56% obesidad a los cuatro años de edad. La incidencia de caries temprana de la infancia en niños con malnutrición por exceso fue de 57,14% en relación al 40,82% de los niños eutróficos (p = 0,022) con RR de 1,4 (95% IC, 1.044-1,88). Conclusiones: El mayor riesgo asociado a CTI en pacientes con malnutrición por exceso invita a generar las instancias de derivación oportuna desde el profesional que pesquisa a niños con malnutrición por exceso hacia el odontólogo infantil, con el fin de desarrollar intervenciones preventivas para ambas patologías.
Background: Proper exercise training modifies intra miocellular energy utilization, glucose transport and mitochondrial biogenesis. Aim: To determine the therapeutic effects of a high intensity intermittent training (HIIT) program on glucose homeostasis, physical fitness and body fat in glucose intolerant patients. Patients and Methods: Eighteen patients with overweight or obesity and glucose intolerance were invited to participate in an exercise program consisting in three sessions per week for 3 months. Ten participants aged 35 ± 13 years who attended > 26 of the planned 36 sessions, were considered as adherent to exercise. The other eight participants aged 37 ± 17 years, who attended to a mean of 13 sessions, were considered as non-adherent. Both groups had similar body weight, body mass index, body fat, plasma glucose 2 h after an oral glucose load and maximal oxygen uptake. All these variables were measured at the end of exercise intervention. Each session consisted of 1 min exercise of cycling at maximal intensity until muscle fatigue followed by 2 min rest, repeated 10 times. Results: Among adherent participants, twelve weeks of HIIT improved signifcantly maximal oxygen uptake (6.1 + 3.6 mL/kg/min or 24.6%), reduced 2 h post load blood glucose (-33.7 + 47.9 mg/dL or -12.5%) and body fat (-4.3 + 5.6 kg). No signifcant changes were observed in the non-adherent group. Conclusions: HIIT exercise reduces blood glucose after an oral load in glucose intolerant patients.
Background: Several genetic polymorphisms of adiponectin have been associated to metabolic diseases as obesity and co-morbidities. Aim: To investigate if there are associations between +45TG, +276GT, -11,377CG y -11,391GA adiponectin SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism) with obesity in a Chilean children population. Material and Methods: A case-control study was performed in 241 obese and 126 normal weight children (7-11 years old) from the urban community of Hualpén, Biobío region. Children were classified as normal or obese, according to age and gender-specificpercentiles defined by Centerfor Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The analysis of serum markers was carried out using commercial kits. Adiponectin polymorphisms were determined through a High Resolution Melting (HRM)-enabled real time PCR and by DNA fragment sequencing. Results: The observed allelic frequencies of the studied SNPs were over 11%. The 11,377CG polymorphism was associated with a high risk of obesity, calculated by the additive inheritance model (odds ratio = 1.389, 95% confidence interval: 1.001-1.929,p = 0.049). Conclusions: Obese school children of the Biobío Region, have an increased risk of carrying the susceptibility allele polymorphism 11377CG of adiponectin gene.