Background Renal failure is a frequent and serious complication in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Objectives We aimed to evaluate the renal oxidative stress, cell damage and impaired cell function in animal model of cirrhosis. Methods Secondary biliary cirrhosis was induced in rats by ligation of the common bile duct. We measured TBARS, ROS and mitochondrial membrane potential in kidney as markers of oxidative stress, and activities of the antioxidant enzymes. Relative cell viability was determined by trypan blue dye-exclusion assay. Annexin V-PE was used with a vital dye, 7-AAD, to distinguish apoptotic from necrotic cells and comet assay was used for determined DNA integrity in single cells. Results In bile duct ligation animals there was significant increase in the kidney lipoperoxidation and an increase of the level of intracellular ROS. There was too an increase in the activity of all antioxidant enzymes evaluated in the kidney. The percentage viability was above 90% in the control group and in bile duct ligation was 64.66% and the dominant cell death type was apoptosis. DNA damage was observed in the bile duct ligation. There was a decreased in the mitochondrial membrane potential from 71.40% ± 6.35% to 34.48% ± 11.40% in bile duct ligation. Conclusions These results indicate that intracellular increase of ROS cause damage in the DNA and apoptosis getting worse the renal function in cirrhosis.
Contexto A falência renal é uma complicação grave e frequente em pacientes com cirrose descompensada. Objetivo Avaliar o estresse oxidativo, o dano ao DNA e alterações na função celular no rim em um modelo animal de cirrose. Métodos A cirrose biliar secundária foi induzida em ratos através da ligadura do duto biliar comum. Foi medido no rim o TBARS (substâncias que reagem ao ácido tiobarbitúrico), ERO (espécies reativas de oxigênio), o potencial de membrana mitocondrial e a atividade das enzimas antioxidantes. A viabilidade celular foi determinada utilizando o ensaio de exclusão do trypan-blue. Para distinguir células em apoptose ou necrose foram usados os marcadores: Anexina V-PE e 7-AAD e o ensaio cometa foi utilizado para determinar dano ao DNA. Resultados Em animais cirróticos houve um aumento significativo da lipoperoxidação no rim e na quantidade de ERO intracelular. Foi observado um aumento na atividade de todas as enzimas antioxidantes. A porcentagem de viabilidade celular foi superior a 90% no grupo controle e de 64,66% no grupo da ligadura do duto biliar. O padrão de morte celular predominante foi apoptose e houve dano ao DNA no grupo da ligadura do duto biliar. Observou-se uma redução no potencial de membrana mitocondrial no grupo da ligadura do duto biliar (34,48% ± 11,40%) em comparação aos controles (71,40% ± 6,35%). Conclusão Esses resultados parecem indicar que nos animais cirróticos ocorre um aumento no dano oxidativo e ao DNA levando as células renais à apoptose, o que contribui para a falência renal na cirrose.
The current study describes that nor-β-lapachone and its arylamino derivatives, iodinated and methylated naphthoquinones and nor-β-lapachone-based 1,2,3-triazoles exhibited pronounced cytotoxic effects against four human leukemia cell lines (HL-60, K562, Molt-4 and Jurkat). Nor-β-lapachones arylamino substituted with potent activity were identified, revealing themselves as potential prototypes against tumor cell lines. Moreover, cells treated with these compounds showed DNA damage according to the standard comet assay, a finding that was, at least in part, due to increased intracellular levels of ROS. HL-60 cells were chosen to study the underlying molecular mechanisms of cytotoxicity. Drug-induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells was observed by flow cytometry analyses. Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used for a preliminary investigation into the mechanism of drug action on DNA topoisomerases. These results suggested that the cytotoxicity of these compounds apparently does not involve topoisomerase inhibition, but that treatment impairs DNA repair activity, thus triggering cell death. Considering their pro-oxidant properties, we investigated the ability of these compounds to induce apoptosis and chromosomal aberrations as micronuclei in Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79 cells). Morphological apoptotic nuclei and micronuclei induction following drug treatment were observed, suggesting a correlation between DNA damage and apoptosis.
O presente estudo descreve a acentuada atividade citotóxica da nor-β-lapachona, seus derivados arilamino substituídos, naftoquinonas iodadas e metilada, além de nor-β-lapachonas 1,2,3-triazólicas, contra quatro linhagens de células de leucemia humana (HL-60, K562, Molt-4 e Jurkat). Nor-β-lapachonas arilamino substituídas foram identificadas com potente atividade, revelando-se como potenciais protótipos contra as linhagens tumorais descritas. Estudos utilizando o ensaio cometa evidenciaram danos ao ácido desoxirribonucleico (ADN) causado pelos derivados arilamino substituídos devido o aumento dos níveis intracelulares de espécies reativas de oxigênio (ERO's). Células de HL-60 foram selecionadas para a continuidade dos estudos de mecanismos moleculares subjacentes e apoptose induzida pelos derivados quinoidais foi observada por análise de citometria de fluxo. Cepas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae foram utilizadas para uma investigação preliminar sobre o mecanismo de ação em topoisomerases de ADN. Os estudos sugerem que, aparentemente, a citotoxidade dos compostos não envolve a inibição de topoisomerases, mas que o tratamento prejudica a atividade de reparação do ADN, provocando assim a morte celular. A capacidade em induzir apoptose e aberrações cromossômicas em fibroblastos de pulmão de hamster chinês (células V79) também foi investigada. Núcleos apoptóticos foram observados e nossos estudos indicam uma correlação entre dano ao ADN e apoptose.
The essential oil (EO) of aerial parts of Lantana camara L., Verbenaceae, from Simões, Piaui, Northeast of Brazil, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS techniques. In total, 68 compounds were identified. The most representative compounds of the oil were mono and sesquiterpenes. The main compounds found in the oil of the leaves in different months were β-caryophyllene (10.5%, in June of 2009), sabinene (7.98%, in September of 2008), limonene (7.68%, in September of 2008), spathulenol (11.64%, in September of 2008). The oil from stems of L. camara was characterized by a largest amount of sesquiterpenoids, with spatulenol (15.9%) and caryophyllene oxide (17.1% in June of 2009), as main components. β-Gurjunene (32.7%, in September of 2008) was the most prominent compound in the stems oils, which was absent or at very low relative abundance in leaves. L. camara essential oils from leaves were cytotoxic to V79 mammalian cells and also to Artemia salina, showing 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values from 0.23 µg/mL. The in vitro data obtained in this study suggested that EO may also be effective treating yeast infection in patients infected with fluconazole and terbinafine resistant isolates, but its toxicity must be monitored carefully.
The objective of present study was to evaluate the antioxidant and anticonvulsant activities of dichloromethane fraction (DMF) from Platonia insignis Mart., Clusiaceae. The DMF from P. insignis (2 mg/kg) was tested by intraperitoneal (i.p.) to evaluate effects on lipid peroxidation level, nitrite formation, as well as on locomotor and anticonvulsant activities. Wistar rats were treated with, (saline/Tween 80 0.5%, i.p., control group), DMF (2 mg/kg, i.p., DMF group), pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, i.p., P400 group), or the combination of DMF (2 mg/kg, i.p.) and pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, i.p., DMF plus P400). After the treatments all groups were observed for 24 h. In P400 group rats there was a decrease in the motor activity when compared with control group. In DMF plus P400 co-administered rats was observed an increase in motor activity when compared with P400 group. In P400 group rats there was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels. In DMF plus P400 co-administered rats, antioxidant treatment significantly reduced the lipid peroxidation level and nitrite content after seizures. Previous findings strongly support the hypothesis that oxidative stress occurs in rat striatum during pilocarpine-induced seizures, and our results imply that strong neuprotective effect on this brain region could be achieved using DMF from P. insignis.