The use of sorghum in human nutrition has been expanded due to its nutritional composition and its functional potential. Extrusion has been used to improve the quality of sorghum. The aim of this work was to assess the effect of extrusion in the nutritional composition, phenolic compounds content of two sorghum, and characterize the profile of chemical constituents by paper spray mass spectrometry (PS-MS). Extrusion increased the carbohydrate and fiber contents and reduced moisture, lipids and ashes, and enabling a higher degree of liberation of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. The fingerprint obtained in both ionization modes had been influenced by extrusion, allowing for a greater compounds’ identification on the extruded samples. The analysis of sorghum samples’ main components made distinguishing of the main constituents possible, as well as highlighted the extrusion effect and the influence of the genotypes. This study demonstrated that extrusion enabling a higher liberation of phenolic compounds, which were identified by the PS-MS technique.
ABSTRACT The Northern Pará Drainage System encompasses the left-bank tributaries of the Amazonas River in the southern Guiana Shield region of Pará state, Brazil. Five of the region’s state protected areas are considered strategic for the conservation of its biodiversity. In the present study, we assessed the ichthyofauna of the five state protected areas of the Northern Pará Drainage System. Seven expeditions were conducted between January 2008 and January 2009, which surveyed stretches of the Cuminá, Cuminapanema, Curuá, Jari, Mapuera, Nhamundá, and Paru rivers. These surveys yielded 286 species belonging to 38 families and eight orders, including seven new records of fish species for Brazil, six of which are also new records for the Amazon basin. Our results provide a valuable database for future research and conservation programs in the protected areas of the region.
RESUMO O Sistema de Drenagens do Norte do Pará abrange os afluentes da margem esquerda do Rio Amazonas, na região sul do Escudo das Guianas no estado do Pará, Brasil. Cinco das áreas estaduais protegidas da região são consideradas estratégicas para a conservação da biodiversidade. No presente estudo, nós acessamos a ictiofauna das cinco áreas de proteção estadual do Sistema de Drenagens do Norte do Pará. Sete expedições foram realizadas entre os meses de janeiro de 2008 e janeiro de 2009, amostrando trechos das bacias dos rios Cuminá, Cuminapanema, Curuá, Jari, Mapuera, Nhamundá e Paru. As expedições resultaram em 286 espécies pertencentes a 38 famílias e oito ordens, incluindo sete novos registros de peixes para o Brasil, seis deles também representando novos registros para a bacia Amazônica. Nossos resultados fornecem uma base sólida para futuros programas de pesquisa e conservação nas áreas de proteção da região.
Abstract RNA editing is a posttranscriptional process that changes nucleotide sequences, among which cytosine-to-uracil by a deamination reaction can revert non-neutral codon mutations. Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins comprise a family of RNA-binding proteins, with members acting as editing trans-factors that recognize specific RNA cis-elements and perform the deamination reaction. PPR proteins are classified into P and PLS subfamilies. In this work, we have designed RNA biotinylated probes based in soybean plastid RNA editing sites to perform trans-factor specific protein isolation. Soybean cis-elements from these three different RNA probes show differences in respect to other species. Pulldown samples were submitted to mass spectrometry for protein identification. Among detected proteins, five corresponded to PPR proteins. More than one PPR protein, with distinct functional domains, was pulled down with each one of the RNA probes. Comparison of the soybean PPR proteins to Arabidopsis allowed identification of the closest homologous. Differential gene expression analysis demonstrated that the PPR locus Glyma.02G174500 doubled its expression under salt stress, which correlates with the increase of its potential rps14 editing. The present study represents the first identification of RNA editing trans-factors in soybean. Data also indicated that potential multiple trans-factors should interact with RNA cis-elements to perform the RNA editing.
The structures of two methoxylated chalcones, namely (E)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one and (E)-3-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one, reveal the effect of the inclusion of the methoxyl and ethoxyl substituents of the conformation on methoxy-chalcone. Structural comparative study between two chalcones was done in this work and some effects on geometric parameters, such as planarity and dihedral angles, were described. In addition, intermolecular interactions responsible for crystalline packaging were investigated by Hirshfeld surfaces and the values of those interactions were analysed by comparing experimental and theoretical models. The molecular stability was expressed in terms of softness and hardness, both obtained from frontier molecular orbitals. Finally, there is a good agreement between calculated and experimental infrared spectrum, which allowed the assignment of the normal vibrational modes.
ABSTRACT The use of PSA in the screening, detection and prognosis of prostate cancer (PCa) has revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of this disorder with an increase in detection rates and PCa organ-confined. Despite these benefits and ease of implementation, tracking PCa remains a matter of great controversy. We conducted a literature review and demographic and epidemiological data in Brazil feeling to assess the current state of screening and whether there is justification for population programs. the differences are valued between developed and underdeveloped countries as the incidence, mortality, screening and access to health. an analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of screening is made as well as a critical analysis of existing studies on screening and some recommendations on a rational screening.
ABSTRACT Validate the EORTC risk tables in Brazilian patients with NMIBC. Methods: 205 patients were analyzed. The 6 parameters analyzed were: histologic grading, pathologic stage, size and number of tumors, previous recurrence rate and concomitant CIS. The time for first recurrence (TFR), risk score and probability of recurrence were calculated and compared to the probabilities obtained from EORTC risk tables. C-index was calculated and accuracy of EORTC tables was analyzed. Results: pTa was presented in 91 (44.4%) patients and pT1 in 114 (55.6%). Ninety-seven (47.3%) patients had solitary tumor, and 108 (52.7%) multiple tumors. One hundred and three (50.2%) patients had tumors smaller than 3 cm and 102 (40.8%) had bigger than 3 cm. Concomitant CIS was observed in 21 (10.2%) patients. Low grade was presented in 95 (46.3%) patients, and high grade in 110 (53.7%). Intravesical therapy was utilized in 105 (56.1%) patients. Recurrence was observed in 117 (57.1%) patients and the mean TFR was 14,2 ± 7,3 months. C-index was 0,72 for 1 year and 0,7 for 5 years. The recurrence risk was 28,8% in 1 year and 57,1% in 5 years, independently of the scoring risk. In our population, the EORTC risk tables overestimated the risk of recurrence in 1 year and underestimated in 5 years. Conclusion: The validation of the EORTC risk tables in Brazilian patients with NMIBC was satisfactory and should be stimulated to predict recurrence, although these may overestimated the risk of recurrence in 1 year and underestimated in 5 years.
Objective: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with elevated levels of anxiety and depression and a reduction in health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Nonadherence to treatment is also frequent in IBD and compromises outcomes. Religious coping plays a role in the adaptation to several chronic diseases. However, the influence of religious coping on IBD-related psychological distress, HRQoL, and treatment adherence remains unknown. Method: This cross-sectional study recruited 147 consecutive patients with either Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis. Sociodemographic data, disease-related variables, psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), religious coping (Brief RCOPE Scale), HRQoL (WHOQOL-Bref), and adherence (8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale) were assessed. Hierarchical multiple regression models were used to evaluate the effects of religious coping on IBD-related psychological distress, treatment adherence, and HRQoL. Results: Positive RCOPE was negatively associated with anxiety (b = 0.256; p = 0.007) as well as with overall, physical, and mental health HRQoL. Religious struggle was significantly associated with depression (b = 0.307; p < 0.001) and self-reported adherence (b = 0.258; p = 0.009). Finally, anxiety symptoms fully mediated the effect of positive religious coping on overall HRQoL. Conclusion: Religious coping is significantly associated with psychological distress, HRQoL, and adherence in IBD.
Abstract An updated synthesis of cyanobacteria and algae information is presented for Brazil aiming to refine the data gathered to date and evaluate the progress of the biodiversity knowledge about these organisms in the country since the publication of the Catálogo de Plantas e Fungos do Brasil. The results of 2015 showed an increase of 1,250 species (35.7%) when compared to 2010, reaching a total of 4,747 species. The most diverse classes in species number were the Bacillariophyceae, Conjugatophyceae, Florideophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Dinophyceae and Euglenophyceae. Bacillariophyceae and Cyanophyceae had the highest increase in species number in the five-year interval. The Southeast and South regions were the most diverse, however, the Northeast, with the states of Piauí and Sergipe, and the Central-west region, with Mato Grosso, Goiás and Distrito Federal, also stood out in the national algal biodiversity scenario. Despite the shortage of taxonomists and limited infrastructure, the results showed a significant improvement in the knowledge regarding the diversity of cyanobacteria and algae in the country during the study period, starting to even out regional geographical differences caused by subsampling.
Resumo Apresenta-se uma síntese atualizada de informações sobre algas no Brasil objetivando refinar os dados reunidos até o presente, bem como avaliar os avanços sobre o conhecimento da diversidade de algas no país desde a publicação do Catálogo de Plantas e Fungos do Brasil. Os resultados de 2015 mostraram um acréscimo de 1.250 espécies (35.7%) a um total de 4.747 em relação a 2010. As classes mais diversas em número de espécies foram Bacillariophyceae, Conjugatophyceae, Florideophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Dinophyceae e Euglenophyceae. Bacillariophyceae e Cyanophyceae tiveram o maior acréscimo de espécies no intervalo de cinco anos. A região Sudeste e Sul foram as mais diversas, porém, as regiões Nordeste com os estados do Piauí e Sergipe e Centro-Oeste com os estados de Mato Grosso, Goiás e Distrito Federal destacaram-se no cenário da biodiversidade nacional. Apesar da escassez de taxonomistas e da infraestrutura limitada, os resultados obtidos evidenciaram um avanço significativo no conhecimento da diversidade de algas no país nesse período de cinco anos, iniciando uma mudança quanto as diferenças geográficas regionais.
The aim of this research was to evaluate the fractions obtained from the leaf, stem and roots of Allamanda schottii Pohl, Apocynaceae, responsible for the cytotoxicity, using several cell lines. Cytotoxicity was correlated with the season the part of the plant, and the major compounds were assessed. The ethanol extracts of leaves, stems and roots obtained at different seasons were evaluated in the human erythromyeloblastoid leukemia cell line (K562). Subsequently the ethanol extracts and dichloromethane fractions collected in winter were evaluated in mouse fibroblast cell line (Mus musculus) (L929), cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), human pre-B leukemia (Nalm6), as well as K562 cell line. The compounds plumericin, plumieride and ursolic acid isolated from ethanol extracts of the stems were evaluated in the same cell lines, as well as on breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7), and Mus musculus skin melanoma cell line (B16F10). The chromatographic profiles of the dichloromethane fractions were obtained by high performance liquid chromatography. The results revealed that the season during which A. schottii was collected, and the part of the plant analyzed, influence the cytotoxicity on the K562 cells tested. On the other hand the dichloromethane fractions, mainly from the stems and roots, are responsible for the cytoxicity on the cells tested. These results may be associated with the seasonal variation of plumericin in these parts of the plant. This information is in accordance with the HPLC analysis. The results clearly show the potential for the phytotherapeutic use of this species, and suggest that the cytotoxic activity observed may be due to the presence of plumericin, or to minor compounds not yet identified. The seasonal influence on the production of secondary metabolites was verified.
The Tb3+-β-diketonate complexes [Tb(DBM)3L], [Tb(DBM)2(NO3)L2] and [Tb(DBM)(NO3)2(HMPA)2] (DBM = dibenzoylmethanate; L: TPPO = triphenylphosphine oxide or HMPA = hexamethylphosphine oxide) were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis (CHN), complexometric titration with EDTA and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and the photoluminescence properties evaluated. The triplet state energies of the coordinated DBM ligands were determined using time-resolved phosphorescence spectra of analogous Gd3+ complexes. The results show that the energies increase along with the number of coordinated nitrate anions replacing the DBM ligand in the complexes. The luminescence spectra and emission lifetime measurements revealed that the ligand-to-metal energy transfer efficiency follows the same tendency. Unlike the tris-DBM complexes, bis- and mono-DBM presented high luminescence, and may act as promising candidates for preparation of the emitting layer of light converting molecular devices (LCMDs).
Este trabalho relata a síntese, a caracterização e as propriedades luminescentes dos complexos de fórmulas [Tb(DBM)3L], [Tb(DBM)2(NO3)L2)] e [Tb(DBM)(NO3)2(HMPA)2)] (DBM = dibenzoilmetanato; L: TPPO = óxido de trifenilfosfina ou HMPA = óxido de hexametilfosforamida). Os compostos foram caracterizados por análise elementar (CHN), titulação complexométrica com EDTA e espectroscopia no infravermelho com transformada de Fourier (FTIR), e as propriedades de fotoluminescência foram avaliadas. As energias dos estados tripletos do ligante DBM foram determinadas experimentalmente a partir dos espectros de fosforescência resolvidos no tempo dos compostos análogos do íon Gd3+. As energias aumentam em função do número de ânions nitratos que substituem o ligante DBM nos complexos. Ademais, os espectros de luminescência e os tempos de vida dos níveis emissores revelaram que a eficiência de transferência de energia ligante-metal segue a mesma tendência. Ao contrário dos complexos tris-DBM, o bis- e o mono-DBM apresentaram elevada intensidade de luminescência, sendo candidatos promissores para camadas emissoras de luz em dispositivos moleculares conversores de luz (LCMD).
Conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT) management systems alter soil nutrient availability and consequently modify soil microbial response to nutrient additions such as carbon (C) and phosphorus (P). The objective of this study is to evaluate microbial response to the addition of C (glucose) and P (Na2HPO4.7H2O) under CT and NT in the brazilian Cerrado. In response to glucose addition, the NT system yielded higher microbial respiration rates and glucose consumption than the CT system. The best microbial response to C addition was after 0 - 12 h incubation in NT and 0 - 24 h in CT. The addition of P produced higher demand under CT than NT. After incubation, biochemical indicators such as microbial respiration, glucose consumption, dehydrogenase activity and metabolic yield confirmed the higher glucose demands under NT and higher phosphorus demands under CT. These results demonstrate that C and P addition alter significantly the microbial response, suggesting that soil microorganisms present nutrient differential demands between CT and NT management systems.
Os sistemas convencional (SC) e plantio direto (SPD) alteram a disponibilidade de nutrientes no solo e, consequentemente, modificam a resposta da microbiota do solo à adição de nutrientes tais como carbono (C) e fósforo (P). O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a resposta da microbiota do solo à adição de C (glicose) e P (Na2HPO4.7H2O) sob os SC e SPD no Cerrado brasileiro. Em resposta à adição de glicose, o sistema SPD apresentou maior taxa de respiração microbiana e consumo de glicose do que o SC. A melhor resposta da microbiota à adição de carbono foi após 12 horas de incubação no SPD e 24 horas no SC. A adição de P produziu um maior efeito sob SC do que SPD. Após a incubação, os indicadores bioquímicos, como respiração microbiana, consumo de glicose, atividade de desidrogenase e rendimento metabólico, confirmaram a maior demanda de glicose em SPD e de P em SC. Esses resultados demonstraram que as adições de C e P alteram significativamente a resposta microbiana do solo, sugerindo que os microorganismos do solo apresentam uma demanda diferencial de nutrientes entre os sistemas SC e SPD.
Wistar rats (n=20) were divided in two groups: G1 received 2 mg/kg of GBE (Ginkgo biloba extract 761), whereas G2 received the same volume of a sodium chloride solution (0.9%), both for 10 days. After a 7-day interval, the treatment was repeated for 8 days. Urine volume and food and water intake were measured daily during this protocol. Histological assessments were performed. No significant difference (p>0.05) was observed in food and water intake of animals during treatment with GBE. Animals who received GBE had a smaller urine volume and increase of weight with a significance difference (p<0.05) during the first and second exposure period. No histological alteration was observed in tissues, except for the kidney of the experimental group, which revealed a higher concentration of red cells in the glomerulus with a strong staining for Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF). The introduction of GBE (therapeutic dose) in health rats may promote alterations in the physiology of the kidney, but no sufficient to modify the glomerulus architecture, including at ultra structural level (electron microscopy).
In this work we report the use of lanthanide nitrates [Ln(NO3)3] acting as catalyst in direct one-pot synthesis of 3-benzoyl- and 3-acetyl-1,2,4-oxadiazoles derivatives from ketones, nitriles and nitric acid. This is the first example of one-pot synthesis of benzoyl- and acetyl 1,2,4-oxadiazoles derivatives preparation using acetophenones derivates with electron-donator groups.
Neste trabalho relatamos o uso de nitratos de lantanídeos [Ln(NO3)3] atuando como catalisador na síntese de uma única etapa de derivados de 3-benzoíla- e 3-acetila-1,2,4-oxadiazóis a partir de cetonas, nitrilas e ácido nítrico. Este é o primeiro exemplo da síntese em única etapa de preparação de derivados benzoíla e acetila-1,2,4-oxadiazóis, usando acetofenonas com grupos doadores de elétrons.
This work presents the observed changes in Wistar rats under long treatment (thirteen weeks) with different oral doses of the ethanolic extract (EE) from Jatropha gossypiifolia L., Euphorbiaceae. The most significant toxic signs indicated a reduction of the activity in the central nervous system and digestive disturbances. The histopathological analysis shows hepatotoxity and pulmonary damages. The lethality was 46.6% among males under the higher experimental dose (405 mg/kg) and 13.3% both in females under the higher dose and among the animals treated with 135 mg/kg of the product. These data show the significant oral chronic toxicity of EE of J. gossypiifolia in rats.
Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) can control Diaphania hyalinata Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). On the other hand, pesticides may reduce the efficiency of natural enemies. The objective was to evaluate the side-effects of fungicides used in the production of cucurbitaceous crops on Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner parasitizing D. hyalinata eggs. The fungicides used in bioassays were: azoxystrobin (0.08 g active ingredient [ai] L-1), chlorothalonil (2.00 g ai L-1), mancozeb (1.60 g ai L-1), tebuconazole (0.25 g ai L-1) and thiophanate-methyl (0.49 g ai L-1). Cardboards with 30 D. hyalinata eggs previously immersedin fungicide solutions and distilled water (control) were offered separately to 20 newly emerged T. atopovirilia females in glass tubes. Parasitism, parasitism reduction, emergence, sex ratio, and number of individuals per egg were evaluated. The fungicides chlorothalonil, thiophanate-methyl and tebuconazole reduced parasitism of T. atopovirilia by 43.37, 27.64 and 18.51%, respectively. However, parasitism with azoxystrobin (79.21%) was higher than the control (67.37%) (P ≤ 0.05). Chlorothalonil, thiophanate-methyl and tebuconazole reduced emergence by 73.77, 75.62 and 79.35% (P ≤ 0.05), respectively. Azoxystrobin and thiophanate-methyl reduced the sex ratio by 0.77 and 0.76 (P ≤ 0.05), respectively. Fungicides did not reduce the number of individuals per egg. The fungicides azoxystrobin and mancozeb were selective for T. atopovirilia for most studied parameters suggesting that these products must have the priority in crop disease management to allow efficient biological control of T. atopovirilia against D. hyalinata.
Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) pueden controlar Diaphania hyalinata Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Sin embargo, los plaguicidas pueden reducir la eficiencia de los enemigos naturales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la influencia de los fungicidas utilizados en la producción de cucurbitáceas en Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner sobre huevos de D. hyalinata. Se evaluaron los fungicidas azoxystrobina (0.08 g ingrediente activo [ia] L-1), clorotalonil (2.00 g ia L-1), mancozeb (1.60 g ia L-1), tebuconazole (0.25 g ia L-1) and tiofanato-metil (0.49 g ia L-1). Tarjetas con 30 huevos de D. hyalinata previamente sumergidos en los fungicidas y en agua destilada (control) fueron ofrecidas a 20 hembras de T. atopovirilia con hasta 24 h de emergencia individualizadas en tubos de vidrio. Se evaluó parasitismo, reducción de parasitismo, emergencia, proporción sexual en la población y el número de individuos emergidos por huevo. Los fungicidas clorotalonil, tiofanato-metil y tebuconazol redujeron el parasitismo de T. atopovirilia en 43,37; 27,64 y 18,51%, respectivamente. Sin embargo, el parasitismo con azoxistrobina (79,21%) fue mayor que el control (67,37%) (P ≤ 0,05). Clorotalonil, tiofanato-metilo y el tebuconazol redujo la aparición de 73,77, 75,62 y 79,35% (P ≤ 0,05), respectivamente. Azoxistrobina y tiofanato-metil reduciran la proporción de sexos de 0,77 y 0,76 (P ≤ 0,05), respectivamente. Ninguno de los fungicidas redujo el número de individuos por cada huevo. Los fungicidas azoxistrobina y mancozeb fueron selectivos para T. atopovirilia en la mayoría de los parámetros estudiados, por lo tanto, deberían tener prioridad en el manejo de enfermedades de cucurbitáceas para permitir el uso eficiente de los enemigos naturales de D. hyalinata.