The influence of Nb content variation on the microstructural and thermal characteristics of NiTiNb alloys was evaluated since these aspects are relevant to the control and adequacy of its shape memory properties for application purposes. The aim of this study was to observe how the Nb content acts in the formation of Nb-rich precipitates and the eutectic structures, which can make this alloys more complex. Microstructural characterization of the alloys was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microanalysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), besides the thermal characterization by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and the comparison between the Nb alloys and the NiTi binary alloy. The results demonstrated a proportional dependence between the amount of β-Nb phase in the microstructures and the amount of Nb dissolved in the NiTi matrix with the Nb content. Although it was found that the increase in the Nb content causes the decrease of the martensitic (Mi) and reverse (Ai) transformation temperatures, the magnitude of thermal hysteresis was not significantly changed.
Zinc electrodeposition is an economical process of Zn coating compared to conventional galvanic process. The galvanizing process is used in various industrial sectors to protect ferrous alloys during the corrosion process. In buildings, the galvanizing process is widely used to coat mortar protective screens. The electrodeposition of zinc has a relatively low cost compared to other coating materials for the same purpose; however, its corrosion resistance is lower than that of most protective deposits. This study evaluated the effect of adding glycerol to the electrodeposition bath on the corrosion resistance, deposition efficiency, morphology and microstructure of the zinc electrodeposit in concentrations ranging from 0.03 to 0.82 M. The electrodeposition was performed on carbon steel AISI 1020 with a current density of 10 mA.cm-2. The electroplating solution composition was 0.10 M ZnCl2, 2.80 M KCl and 0.32 M H3BO3. Electrodeposition time was 17.56 min, 5 µm thick coating, equivalent to the mass of 7.166E-3 g of zinc on the steel surface. Evaluation of the corrosion resistance was performed by means of the electrochemical tests of Anodic Voltammetry, Potentiodynamic Polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) as well as Weight Loss tests in NaCl 0.5 M in 4 (four) different period of immersion. The morphology and microstructures of electrodeposited were analyzed using the techniques of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Spectrometry X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The presence of glycerol in the electrodeposition bath decreased the deposition efficiency; however, it increased corrosion resistance and promoted the formation of more compact and refined electrodeposited coatings. Moreover, the results showed that the corrosion rate does not vary linearly with the addition of glycerol.
This work evaluates the corrosion process caused by the presence of hydrogen sulfide in the biogas in natura, in steels commonly used in the construction of steam generator boilers, simulating conditions close to those found on the real application of these materials, exposing the test bodies directly to biogas in natura, flame of combustion and gases resulting from the combustion of this biofuel, in chimney. After 314 hours of exposure under the specified conditions, the corroded surfaces of ASTM A178 and ASTM A516 were analyzed, by optical microscopy, electronic scanning microscopy, X-ray diffraction and surface hardness. The determination of corrosion rates for each test condition and each material tested can be used as a parameter for the determination of the minimum tolerance for mechanical stability, in the calculation of the minimum required thickness of the structural elements of the steam generator boilers fed to biogas.
Conventional stainless steels are used in cyclic oxidation, but the high amount of Cr and mainly Ni increase the price of these alloys. The objective of the present study was to assess the cyclic oxidation resistance of FeSiCrNi and FeMnSiCrNiCe alloys in comparison to AISI 304 and AISI 310 stainless steels by evaluating the oxidation kinetics and using characterization techniques to determine the oxides formed. The alloys were melted in induction furnaces and cast in sand molds. Cyclic oxidation tests were carried out in an automated oven in cycles of one hour for heating and maintenance at high temperature (850, 950 or 1050 °C) and 10 minutes for cooling. To characterize the oxidized layers, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis were performed. The oxidation kinetics were determined. The results showed that the studied alloys presented better results than AISI 304 at 850 °C, but at 1050 °C, AISI 310 presented the best results. At 950 °C, the FeSiCrNi alloy presented layer detachment and FeMnSiCrNiCe presented a higher rate of mass variation than AISI 310, both without oxide detachment. For both alloys, formation of chromium and manganese oxides with parabolic rate of mass gain occurred.
The formation of intermetallic phases alters the properties of duplex stainless steel and is therefore a crucial factor in its performance. For example, the formation of sigma phase in duplex steel increases its brittleness and decreases its corrosion resistance because this phase consumes chromium and molybdenum in solid solution, thus leading to the depletion of these elements in the matrix. This study investigated the corrosion resistance of as-cast SAF 2205 duplex stainless steel after solution annealing treatment at 1100 °C for 240 minutes, under varying cooling rates. The objective was to evaluate the correlation between cooling condition, microstructural changes and corrosion resistance based on cyclic potentiodynamic polarization and double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR) measurements. The results revealed a significant reduction in the corrosion resistance of a slowly cooled sample, which presented an increase in the degree of Cr (Qr / Qa) depletion resulting from the formation of sigma phase.
Neste trabalho, tubos de aço inoxidável supermartensítico (AISM) foram soldados por fricção radial (SFR) e suas propriedades de corrosão foram estudadas através de ensaios de polarização anódica em solução de 3,5 % de NaCl e da técnica eletroquímica de reativação potenciocinética de ciclo duplo (DL-EPR). As medidas foram realizadas em amostras extraídas de diferentes regiões da solda SFR, i.e., metal de base (MB), interface de soldagem e anel consumível (AC). As propriedades de corrosão foram discutidas em termos da microestrutura metalúrgica resultante em cada região. A precipitação de carbonetos de Cr que ocorre durante o tratamento de revenimento causa um empobrecimento em Cr substancial na estrutura revenida do MB (Ir/Ia = 54,22%). Por outro lado, as regiões do AC e da interface de soldagem, que tiveram suas microestruturas transformadas e seus precipitados de carboneto de Cr redissolvidos pelo ciclo termomecânico de soldagem SFR, apresentam um baixo grau de empobrecimento em Cr (Ir/Ia < 1%). A microestrutura do AC, composta de uma mistura de martensita temperada e austenita retida, apresenta maior resistência à corrosão localizada do que a estrutura revenida do MB. Também foi observado que a ferrita-δ diminui a resistência à corrosão por pites na região da interface de soldagem.
In this work, supermartensitic stainless steel pipes were radial friction (RF) welded and their corrosion behavior were studied based on potentiodynamic polarization and double loop - electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR) tests. Measurements were performed on samples taken from the base metal (BM), weld interface, and consumable ring (CR) of the RF weldment. The corrosion properties were discussed in terms of their resulting metallurgical microstructure. The precipitation of Cr carbides that takes place during the tempering treatment induces a substantial Cr depletion value (Ir/Ia = 54,22%). On the other hand, CR and weld interface regions, which had their microstructure transformed and their Cr carbide precipitates redissolved by the RF welding thermomechanical cycle, present a low level of Cr depletion (Ir/Ia < 1%). The AC microstructure, which is composed of a mixture of virgin martensite and stable retained austenite, presents an increase in pitting corrosion resistance compared to the tempered structure of the BM region. It was also observed that the δ-ferrite decreases the pitting resistance of the weld interface region.
O aço inoxidável AISI 444 tornou-se uma opção para substituir a liga AISI 316L devido ao seu menor custo e satisfatória resistência à corrosão. Entretanto, o uso da liga AISI 444 no feixe tubular de trocadores de calor acarreta na soldagem de uma junta dissimilar. O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a resistência à corrosão da junta tubo-espelho soldada pelo processo TIG composta pelas ligas AISI 316L e AISI 444. A manufatura das amostras consistiu em replicar o projeto da junta tubo-espelho de trocadores de calor. Realizou-se em juntas soldadas ensaios de sensitização, perda de massa por imersão desde a temperatura ambiente até 90 ºC, e ensaios eletroquímicos de polarização potenciodinâmica nos eletrólitos 0,5 mol/L de HCl e 0,5 mol/L de H2SO4. Os resultados mostraram que a junta dissimilar sofreu corrosão galvânica com maior degradação na zona afetada pelo calor (ZAC) do tubo AISI 444. Porém, os mecanismos de corrosão localizada (pite e intergranular) demonstraram ser mais ativos para a liga AISI 316L. Conclui-se que a junta dissimilar apresentou melhor resistência à corrosão do que a junta soldada composta unicamente pela liga AISI 316L em temperaturas de até 70 ºC, conforme as condições observadas neste trabalho.
The AISI 444 stainless steel (SS) has become an option to substitute the AISI 316L SS because its low cost and satisfactory corrosion resistance. However, the use of AISI 444 alloy tubes in heat exchangers cause the welding of a dissimilar joint. The aim of this study was evaluate the corrosion resistance of the tube-to-tubesheet welded by TIG process composed of AISI 316L and AISI 444. Preparation of samples was executed through replication of tube-to-tubesheet joints. In order to test the corrosion resistance of welded joint the following tests were applied, sensitization, mass loss from room temperature up to 90 ºC, and electrochemical corrosion tests in 0,5 mol/L HCl and 0,5 mol/L H2SO4 electrolytes. The results have shown that the dissimilar joint suffers galvanic corrosion with increased degradation of the heat affected zone (HAZ) of the AISI 444 tube. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of localized corrosion (pit and intergranular) was more active in the AISI 316L alloy. It is concluded that the dissimilar joint showed better corrosion resistance than the welded joint composed solely by AISI 316L at temperatures up to 70 ºC, as the conditions observed in this work.
Os aços inoxidáveis supermartensíticos são utilizados nas indústrias de petróleo e gás, pois aliam boas propriedades mecânicas, soldabilidade e excelente resistência à corrosão. Eles são endurecidos pelo tratamento térmico de têmpera e, para otimizar suas propriedades mecânicas, são submetidos ao revenimento. Durante o revenimento, ocorre precipitação de fases, que, dependendo dos parâmetros temperatura e tempo, induz alterações indesejadas nas propriedades desses aços. Nesse trabalho, o objetivo foi estudar a microestrutura e a resistência à corrosão de um aço inoxidável supermartensítico em diferentes condições de revenido (550°C, 600°C e 650°C). Observou-se, na microestrutura da amostra revenida a 650°C, a formação de austenita e precipitados de cromo do tipo Cr3C2 e Cr7C3. As curvas de polarização indicaram que o tratamento térmico influencia o comportamento anódico, modificando a região passiva e as características do filme passivo. O revenido altera a resistência à corrosão, com o grau de sensitização diminuindo com o aumento de temperatura de 550°C para 650°C, devido à recuperação das zonas empobrecidas de cromo.
Supermartensitic stainless steels have been used in the oil and gas industry for onshore and offshore tubing applications, due to their good mechanical properties, weldability and excellent corrosion resistance. They are hardened by quenching heat treatment, and to improve their toughness, are submitted to tempering. During the tempering, some phase precipitation occurs, which depending on the time and temperature parameters, produces some undesired changes in the steel properties. The aim of this research was to study the microstructure and the corrosion resistance of supermartensitic stainless steel in quenched and different tempered conditions (550°C, 600°C and 650°C). At the microstructure of the 650°C tempered sample was observed the formation of austenite and precipitates of chromium, like Cr3C2 and Cr7C3.The polarization curves indicated that the heat treatment influences the anodic behavior, changing the passive region and the passive film characteristics. The tempering changes the corrosion resistance, decreasing the degree of sensitization when increasing the temperature from 550°C to 650°C, this occurs due to the recovery of the chromium impoverished zones.